||Treaty of Turkmanchai concludes Perso-Russian War. Whole
Assyrian villages move north into Russian territory.
||American Rev. Justin Perkins arrives in Urmia to begin
work among Assyrians.
||Archbishop of Canterbury's mission to the Church of
the East in Hakkari.
||Bedir Khan's Kurdish troops massacre Assyrians in Hakkari,
especially the Tiyari.
||First newspaper in Iran, the Assyrian language Zahrira
||Massacre of Assyrians in Ottoman (Turkish) towns and
||Russian mission arrives in Urmia, Iran.
|12 April 1903
||Mar Benyamin Shimmun is consecrated as the 117th Patriarch
of the Church of the East.
||The Ottoman government declares Turkish as the only
language allowed in schools.
||Germans and British officials discuss control of the
||Russian troops enter northwest Iran.
||British forces in Basra move to protect oil pipelines
in Iran from Ottoman/German capture.
||World War I begins.
|30 October 1914
||Bashkala massacre of 50 Gawarnai Assyrians by Muslim
|4 November 1914
||Fatwa for Jihad declared in Istanbul against Christians.
||Turks arrest Mar Shimmun’s brother, Hormiz, who
was then murdered.
||Year of the Sword/Sypa/Sayfo. Order from the Committee
on Union and Progress to rid eastern Turkey of Christians.
Ottoman Assyrians flee to Russia,Iran, Aleppo and Jerusalem
in wake of the genocide. Local Muslims attack and kill
Bishop Mar Dinkha and 60 men in Golpashan. 700,000 Assyrians,
1.5 Million Armenians, & 300,000 Pontic Greeks perish
between 1915 and 1919.
||The Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain, France, and
Russia to divide Ottoman Empire after WWI. Hussain is
proclaimed king of Arabs.
||Russian revolution leads to dissolution of Russian military
||Enver Pasha's troops enter Iran as all Assyrians join
to defend themselves. Combined local Muslim & Turkish
troops capture Urmia.
|16 March 1918
||Kurdish chief, Simko, assassinates Mar Benyamin Shimmun
in Salamas, Iran. Pillage of Assyrian villages in Iran
and attempt to cleanse area of Christians begins. British
truck fleeing Assyrians to refugee camps.
|15 April 1918
||Mar Polous Shimmun is consecrated as the 118th Patriarch
of the Church of the East in Urmia, Iran.
||Ottoman Empire disintegrates.
||Treaty of Sevres to end WWI between Allies and Turkey.
League of Nations is formed. British use Assyrian refugees
to enforce occupation of Mesopotamia. Assyrians denied
representation at Paris Peace Conference due to British.
Under French protection, the Assyrian Protectorate in
Jazirah (Khabour area of Syria) forms under Malik Kambar
d-Malik Warda of Jelu.
||Mar Polous Shimmun passes away in the Bakuba refugee
camp in Iraq.
|10 June 1920
||Treaty of Sevres is signed by Turkey. Provides for Kurds,
Arabs, Armenians but not Assyrians. Formation of Mesopotamia
as British mandate. Assyrians return to Hakkari but accept
draft into British Levies to guard Mosul from Turks on
promise of homeland.
|20 June 1920
Mar Shimmun Ishaya, 13, is consecrated as the 119th Patriarch
of the Church of the East.
|24 July 1920
French forces occupy Damascus. The French Mandate over
|10 August 1920
||Treaty of Sevres: France receives Syrian Mandate &
Britain receives Palestine Mandate.
||Patriarchal family with British refuse French-backed
offer to move Assyrians to Jazira, Syria. British use
Assyrian Levies to guard Kirkuk oil fields. Kurdish Iraqi
revolt under Sheikh Mahmud.
|27 August 1921
||The British install Faisal as king of Iraq.
||Mesopotamia officially becomes "Iraq". Treaty
of Lausanne leaves Mosul issue for League of Nations to
||League of Nations assigns most of oil rich Mosul velayat
||Kurdish uprising against Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The
constitution of 1925 guarantees all minorities in Iraq
equality before the law, including civil and political
rights, and rights to practice their language and religion.
||Turkey agrees to Mosul award after initial protest.
||British agree to Iraq membership in League of Nations
in 5 years (1932).
||Assyrian Levies resign en masse as homeland is denied
Patriarch at Geneva to state Assyrian case before the
Permanent Mandates Commission. Baghdad does not allow
him to return. Iraq admitted into the League of Nations
on condition of guarantees for the protection of minorities.
|30 May 1932
||Iraq is declared a kingdom.
|3 October 1932
||Iraq is admitted to the League of Nations.
|20 June 1933
||Iraqi government expels Mar Shimmun Ishaya to Cyprus.
|4-11 August 1933
||The Massacre at Simel: General Bakr Sidqi, against the
wishes of Faisal, massacres over 3,000 Assyrians in North
|8 September 1933
||King Faisal dies. His son Ghazi supports army’s
action against Assyrians.
||League of Nations decides to settle Assyrians in Ghab
region of Syria.
|11 August 1937
||Bakr Sidqi is assassinated by army officers.
||World War II begins.
||At start of WWII Britain musters able bodied Assyrians
Habbaniya Assyrians give Allies first victory in WWII.
||180 Jews, including women and children, are massacred
||Assyrian area of Jazira incorporated into Syria.
|7 May 1945
||Mar Shimmun Ishaya presents “The Assyrian National
Petition” at the World Security Conference in San
||Patriarch protests to United Nations the lack of protection
in Iran. 70 Assyrian villages pillaged in Iraq.
||The Assyrian Levy troops in Iraq are dismantled and
released from duty unconditionally. Only a very few pro-Iraqi
government Assyrians are given the opportunity to transfer
to the Iraqi army.
||The Assyrian Democratic Organization (Takasta) is founded
||Republic replaces Iraqi monarchy. Renewed promise of
minority rights for Assyrians.
|1 July 1958
||“Free Officers” overthrow the monarchy in
a coup. Brigadier Qassem takes control as prime minister
and commander in chief.
|24 July 1958
||Michel Aflaq, a Christian thinker and founder of the
Baath Party, arrives in Baghdad from Syria.
||The Iraqi army launches attacks against the Kurds and
Assyrians in the north.
1963 First Baathist military coup.
|8 February 1963
||Baathists overthrow Qassim and the first Baathist regime
is installed. Aref becomes president.
||The Iraqi government favors the breakup of the Church
of the East. The “Ancient” Church of the East
is headed by a new patriarch installed in Baghdad.
||The Six-Day War.
||The Assyrian Universal Alliance is founded in Tehran,
|10 April 1968
||The first congress of the AUA held in Pau, France.
|17 July 1968
||Aref’s regime is defeated and a new Baathist regime
takes control under al-Bakr. Saddam Hussein becomes deputy
chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council.
||Depopulation, deportation, and arabization of Assyrians.
Mar Shimmun Ishaya, Patriarch of the church of the East,
is invited to Baghdad in move to recruit Assyrians against
| 11 March 1970
||Fighting between the Iraqi army and the Kurds stops
after a Manifesto on Kurdish Autonomy is published. A
new constitution recognizes the cultural rights of the
Christians minorities in Iraq. No political rights are
|24 April 1970
||Mar Shimmun Ishaya visits the Iraqi president in Baghdad.
||Assyrians petition for autonomous region in Dohuk (Nohadra)
Province when Baghdad grants Kurds option of autonomy
in Arbil and Sulaimaniya.
|16 April 1972
||Baghdad offers "Syriac speaking" not "Assyrians"
limited cultural rights. Decree #251 grants the “Assyrian,
Chaldean, and Syrian” groups the right to teach
their own language at school provided that 25 percent
of the children in a class are Christian.
||All-out war between the Iraqi army and the Kurds in
the North begins. The Shah of Iran begins support of the
||The Baath regime nationalizes all schools in Iraq, including
the Catholic schools. Priests and nuns are forced to swear
the oath of allegiance to the regime.
||The Bet Nahrain organization is established in California.
|6 March 1975
||The Algiers Agreement: Iraq accepts Iran’s territorial
demands and in return Iran stops his support for the Kurds.
The Kurdish resistance fails as the lines of supply are
|6 November 1975
||Mar Shimmun, Patriarch of the Church of the East, is
assassinated in San Jose, California.
|17 October 1976
||Mar Dinkha IV is consecrated as the 120th Patriarch
of the Church of the East in London.
||Over 200 Assyrian villages are razed in northern Iraq
||"Assyrian" omitted from the Iraqi census.
||Special secret instructions issued to prevent departure
|19 October 1978
||Iraqi government orders the imprisonment of the Assyrian
singers and songwriters. This continues until 10 November
1978. The artists were beaten and tortured while in prison.
Among these were Mr. David Easha, Mr. Sammy Yaqu, and
Mr. Albert Oscar.
||Churches destroyed deliberately to remove Assyrian heritage.
In an attempt to divide Assyrians, Baghdad disperses millions
|16 January 1979
||The Shah leaves Iran.
||The Islamic Revolution ends the Pahlavi Dynasty in Iran.
|12 April 1979
||The Assyrian Democratic Movement (Zowaa) is founded
||Saddam Hussein becomes president of Iraq. Al-Bakr is
placed under house arrest.
||Up to 500 top Baathi officials are executed.
|22 September 1980
Saddam Hussein launches war against Iran.
||The Iraqi government adopts measures to nationalize
the properties of the Christian churches and convert the
priests into state employees. The government eventually
backs down. Deterioration of Assyrian schools, church
||Iran-Iraq war sees many Assyrian men drafted and dead
in front lines.
The National Assembly (Iraqi Parliament) includes only
4 Christians among 250 members.
||Dozens of Assyrian nationalists and members of the Assyrian
Democratic Movement (Zowaa) are imprisoned and tortured
by the Iraqi authorities.
||Members of Assyrian political parties are hunted, executed,
|3 February 1985
||Three members of the Assyrian Democratic Movement are
hanged in Baghdad without trial: Yousip Toma Hermis, Youbert
Benyamin Shlimon & Youkhana Esho Jajo. Sixteen other
ADM members have been murdered since.
||Iraqi troops burn and bulldoze homes in the Assyrian
village of Bakhtoma.
||The Iran-Iraq War ends. Government’s official
death toll of the Assyrians from the Iraqi side: 4,250.
Assyrian count: 44,000.
|24 September 1988
||Iraqi troops commence the Anfal Campaign against the
Assyrian and Kurdish populations in North Iraq. Some 250
Christians disappeared during Anfal and its immediate
||Archeological excavations unearth tombs of royal Assyrian
women and gold objects 1991 Gulf War to liberate Kuwait
from Iraqi invasion. In Northern No-Fly Zone, Kurds implement
policies to displace Assyrian villagers. 52 Assyrian villages
seized by Kurds. Kurds begin to identify Assyrians as
||The Iraqi government survey indicates that 20 percent
of the teachers in schools and universities are Christian.
||Iraqi forces attack Kuwait. The United Nations call
for Iraq to withdraw.
|17 January 1991
||Persian Gulf War I: A U.S.-led coalition of 39 countries
begins bombing of Iraq.
||During the rebellion in Basra the Christian quarters
are attacked. Baathi government begins massive deportation
of Arabs to the Kurdish-controlled areas, particularly
the oil city of Kirkuk. North Iraq becomes a de facto
autonomous zone under United Nations protection. Assyrian
schools and media are established and the villages are
|6 April 1991
Iraq agrees to a formal cease-fire.
||Elections held for Parliament of North Iraq but warlordism
||A group of Assyrian intellectuals warn about the “Kurdification”
of the other ethnic minorities in North Iraq. In Dohuk,
Nachir Barazani – a KDP leader – confiscates
a great number of fertile Assyrian lands by intimidation
and terrorizing the land-owners.
||Mr. Francis Yusuf Shabo, a Chaldean-Assyrian, and four
other Assyrians are elected to the 105-member Kurdish
parliament in North Iraq.
||Policy of intimidation of Assyrians in North Iraq. Islamic
Movement of Kurdistan assassination squad targets Assyrians.
Abduction of Assyrian girls by Kurds becomes part of terrorizing
|31 May 1993
||Mr. Francis Shabo is gunned down at his home in Dohuk
(Nohadra). No suspects have since been apprehended.
|14 June 1993
||Mr. Lazar Mikho (Abu Nasir), an Assyrian from Mangesh
and a member of the ICP Central Committee and Iraqi Kurdistan
Front’s Finance Committee is shot by armed assailants
at his home in Dohuk (Nohadra). No substantial investigation
has been carried out to date.
||Common Christological Declaration between the Church
of the East and the Roman Catholic Church.
||Amnesty International lists sixteen Assyrian victims
of political assassinations in northern Iraq.
|6 March 1995
||Mr. Edward Khoshaba of Aqla is tied up by Kurdish attackers
and butchered into several pieces. None of his murderers
have been brought to justice.
||Growth of Islamic extremists and terrorizing of Assyrians.
||Attempt to Kurdify school curricula in northern Iraq
harms Assyrians. Violence against Christian religious
||The Shrine of Mar Sbar Odisho in the courtyard of Mar
Gewargis is desecrated in Dohuk.
|13 January 1996
||Wasan Mishael, a 16-year-old Assyrian girl, is kidnapped
at gun-point from her home. She is forced to denounce
her religion and marry one of her kidnappers.
|20 January 1996
||Janet Oshana, a 13-year-old Assyrian from the village
of Mulla-Urab near Zakho by the Kurdish man named Khorshid
Othman Kalash. The young girl has yet not been returned
to the custody of her parents.
|28 September 1996
||Armed PKK members abduct 15-year old Ahlam Patrus Nissan
from her village. The Assyrian girl was carried off and
never allowed to speak to anyone afterwards. As with other
kidnapping incidences, Ahlam was forced to convert to
Islam and marry her kidnapper.
||Six Assyrians from Baghdad, employed at the Presidential
Palace of Saddam Hussein, are arrested on suspicion of
attempt to poison Saddam Hussein. They are: Gewargis Hormiz
Oraha, Yousip Adam, Khamo Amira, Kora Odisho, Shimon Khoshaba
al-Hozi, Petros Elia Toma, and William Matti Barkho.
||In Baghdad Assyrians are targeted for rape, abduction
and murder. Violence against Assyrians in North &
Baghdad goes unpunished.
|10 February 1997
||Mr. Lazar Matti and his son, Mr. Havel Lazar are dragged
out of prison by a vigilante group of 200 armed Kurds
and brutally killed in Shaqlawa. Mr. Mati’s daughter
was forcibly kidnapped by a Kurd named Mohammad Babakir.
The Kurdish kidnapper was found dead a day before the
killing of Mr. Matti and his son. A Kurdish mullah had
demanded the savage killing of the “Christian”
and the burning of his home. The killing was later condemned
by the Kurdistan Democratic Party leader, Massoud Barazani.
|23 February 1997
||The KDP announces that Mr. Francis Hariri survived an
assassination attempt during his trip to the provincial
headquarters in Arbil. Mr. Francis Hariri is an Assyrian
from northern Iraq and the governor of the province of
Abril. Two of his bodyguards as well as five civilian
bystanders were reportedly wounded. The KDP accuses Mr.
Kosrat Rasool, allegedly a PUK political officer.
||Amnesty International writes to the Iraqi government
seeking the whereabouts of 6 Assyrians arrested in October
|12 April 1997
||Yousif John Yacoub, 35, is brutally stabbed to death
in his home in Baghdad, Iraq. Mr. Yacoub’s neighbors
witness the attack and notify the police, who arrive prior
to Mr. Yacoub’s death. The police keep Mr. Yacoub
in his home for questioning while he bleeds until his
death. Mr. Yacoub’s relatives hear about the incident
one day later and arrive at his home only to find out
that the police has ransacked the place and removed valuables
or evidence. Two weeks later, Mr. Ammed Shurta, a high
ranking police officer and member of the ruling Ba’ath
party, along with his wife and children, occupy Mr. Yacoub’s
|23 May 1997
||Kamal Kiriakos Ablahad, an Assyrian employed at the
residence of Jamal Al-Tikriti, the son-in-law of Saddam
Hussein, is shot. Mr. Ablahad’s kidneys are removed
for organ transplantation in the hospital. The medical
examiner’s report declares the death a suicide.
||Uday, the son of Saddam Hussein, shoots and kills Asil
Salman Mansour. The Assyrian girl is last seen walking
home when she was stopped by a “presidential”
vehicle and was forced into the vehicle by Uday’s
bodyguards. Ms. Mansour was taken to the Presidential
Complex at Al Jadiriya where Uday tries to have sex with
the girl but fails. In a subsequent fit of rage, he shoots
and kills the girl.
|27 July 1997
||A sixty-two-year old Assyrian member of the Chaldean
Catholic Church, Polus Younan, is stabbed to death in
his house by three armed men who demand information regarding
the family’s money and savings. His wife, Medina
Shinoel, survives the attack and reports her account to
the police. The attackers strike Ms. Shinoel with the
butt end of their rifles until most of her teeth are broken.
Then they slash Ms. Shinoel’s 16-year-old son, deaf
and mute Mattai, until he begins to slowly lose consciousness.
|13 December 1997
||Fighters from the Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK)
ambush seven unarmed Assyrian civilians from Mangesh,
Duhok. Those killed include Slewo Khoshaba, Samir Esho,
Majid Shimon, Akhran Hermiz, Salem Yousif, Najid Mikho,
||Two members of the Assyrian community, Lazar Mati and
his son Havel Lazar, are deliberately killed by a group
of armed men, who storm the KDP-controlled Asayish Prison
in Shaqlawa where the two men had been detained. No investigation
is known to have been carried out into the killings.
||An explosion targets an Assyrian convent in the Al Mal’ab
district of Arbil.
|9 December 1998
||Mrs. Nasreen Hana Shaba, born in 1963, and her young
daughter Larsa born in 1995 are killed when a bomb explodes
in their home. The bomb is planted by unknown assailants
in the home of Mr. Najat Toma, located in the district
of Terawa in Arbil. No one claims responsibility for this
act of terrorism against the Assyrian community of northern
|6 January 1999
||A bomb is planted at the front doorsteps of Fr. Zomaya
Yousip in the 7th of Nisan area of Arbil. No casualties
are reported but the home sustains extensive damage.
||The body of Ms. Helena Aloun Sawa, a 21- year old Assyrian
woman from the village of Bash in the Nerwa of Rakan region
of Dohuk province, is found by a shepherd. The decomposed
body is partially exposed and appears to have been partially
eaten by scavenging wild animals. Ms. Sawa is the daughter
of Mr. Aloun Sawa, an Assyrian member of the Kurdistan
Democratic Party (KDP), who had been killed in 1991 by
Iraqi government forces and was recognized by the KDP
as a martyr. Helena Sawa worked as a housekeeper for a
senior KDP leader. She disappeared on May 5, 1999 and
her body was found more than four weeks later.
|15 July 1999
||Three Assyrian political parties declare joint statement
of unity: Assyrian Democratic Movement, Assyrian Democratic
Organization, and the Assyrian Universal Alliance.
|25 November 1999
||In a warning published in the Kurdistan Observer, the
Iraqi Minister of Education threatens to punish those
Assyrians who establish and attend the Assyrian language
schools established in northern Iraq following the Gulf
| 15 December 1999
||Mr. Habib Yousif Dekhola, a 16-old Assyrian man of the
Chaldean Church and a lifelong resident of Ankawa, is
assassinated in Arbil.
||The Iraqi Directorate General of Intelligence summons
several Assyrians including intellectuals, clerics, and
activists, for interrogation in Mosul and Baghdad. Security
agents interrogates the Assyrians regarding Bet Nahrain
Magazine, a California based Assyrian cultural journal.
|18 February 2001
||The Assyrian governor of the northern Iraqi province
of Arbil, Mr. Franso Hariri is assassinated in Arbil.
||Continued imprisonment, torture, and murders of Assyrian
landowners in KDP area. Murder of Chaldean priest in Baghdad.
|17 May 2001
||Behdanani villagers and security forces from Ozman and
Naveshga surround and attack the Assyrian village of Koso.
There are reports of severe beatings requiring hospitalization.
2002 Beheading of Sister Cecelia, Chaldean nun, in Baghdad.
"Accidental" auto death of retired Bishop and
nun. Threatening leaflets into Christian homes in Baghdad.
Assyrian representative accepted into future of Iraq planning
after much pressure from Diaspora.
||The Oil Company of the North in the city of Kirkuk forbids
its Assyrian employees the use of the Assyrian language
and requires the use of Arabic. Officials in the company
threaten to fire, or reassign those who refuse.
|15 August 2002
||Seventy-one-year old Sister Cecilia Moshi Hanna is brutally
attacked by three armed assailants and repeatedly stabbed
to death in her room in the Sacred Heart of Jesus Monastery
in Baghdad, Iraq. Sr. Cecilia Moshi Hanna was a member
of the Order of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and had devoted
her life to ministering to the poor and ill.
|18 September 2002
||The Assyrian Democratic Movement joins the Iraqi Opposition
Groups in New York.
|9 December 2002
||The Assyrian Democratic Movement becomes eligible to
receive assistance under the Presidential Determination
|16 December 2002
||All major Assyrian political parties in a show of unity
meet at the London Conference of the Iraqi Opposition
Groups. Mr. Yonadam Kanna of ADM and Mr. Albert Yelda
are selected as the Assyrian delegates in the 65-member
Followup Committee to meet in January 2003.
||Massoud Barazani's Kurdistan Democratic Party creates
a puppet Chaldean party to split Assyrians.
|26 February 2003
||The Follow-up & Coordination Committee meets in
Salahadin, North Iraq. Members oppose a U.S.-led military
government after Saddam.
|18 March 2003
||Ankara Declaration: The ADM & 7 other Iraqi Opposition
Groups meet in Ankara, Turkey and agree to put their forces
under a U.S.-led command in the event of war with Iraq.
|19 March 2003
||Persian Gulf War II: A U.S. & U.K. led coalition
of 35 countries begins bombing of Iraq.
|9 April 2003
||Baghdad falls. U.S. Administration declared end of Saddam