Volume V                Issue 12
Yaar 10, 6749                                                                              May 10, 1999

To Receive Your Own Personal Weekly "Notification Message" Subscribe to ZENDA at  ZENDA@IX.NETCOM.COM

T H I S  W E E K I N  Z E N D A

The Lighthouse No Compromise
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain Middle East Catholic Leaders to Meet in Beirut
MidEast Christians & Assyrian Group Support Serbs
News Digest Press Release:  AANF on Census 2000 Re-Classification
Unveiling of Ashurbanipal Bust and Scholarship Party
Surfs Up "they died for their Assyrian identity"
Surfers Corner Joint Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac Census 2000 Committee
Is the term "Assyrian" becoming a synonym for "Nestorian"?
Message in the Bottle DeGanjaMan
Assyrian Surfing Posts U.S. Census 2000 Petition
Assyrian United Organizations of California
Dr. Freidoun Atouraya
Unicode Consortium Website on Syriac Language
Pump up the Volume Image & Likeness
Back to the Future Murshili Attacks Babylon & Umar Invades Christian Centers
Literatus A New Heroic Effort
This Week in History First Assyrian Organization in Tehran
Bravo The Assyrian Union of Greece
Calendar of Events Cultural and Social Activities
Khudra May 1999

All blue links throughout this issue are hyperlinks to other sections on this page or featured websites.



Outrage.  Such was our initial reaction at ZENDA to last week's announcement made by the U.S. Bureau of the Census "to accept the proposal agreed upon" by a group of Assyrian individuals to modify the category of "Assyrian" to "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac":

To Mr. Joseph T. Kassab
Chaldean for Census 2000 Committee

Dear Mr. Kassab:

We were pleased to accept the proposal agreed upon by you and your colleagues during the conference call with us on April 26, 1999.  This letter documents the decisions reached regarding the way in which persons of Assyrian and Chaldean ancestry will be coded and tabulated in Census 2000.

For Census 2000, persons who identify as "Assyrians" or "Chaldeans" or identify with one or more of the other ethnic groups listed on the enclosed chart will be tabulated under a single category, namely, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac.  This means that no total will be available for persons who reported as Assyrians alone, Chaldean alone, or in any of the other ethnic groups listed in the enclosed chart.  All conference call participants from the Assyrian and Chaldean communities agreed with this approach.

Please review the enclosed chart listing ethnic groups that the Census Bureau will code and tabulate under the category Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac to ensure that all relevant ethnic groups have been included.  If you have additional groups you wish us to consider for inclusion, please send this information to Manuel de la Puente of my staff by close of business Friday May 7.  Mr. de la Puente can be reached by phone on (301) 457-2403, by fax on (301) 457-2481, or by e-mail to MDELAPUE@CENSUS.GOV.

I would like to thank you and your colleagues for the time and effort spent on this very important issue.  I also want to express my gratitude for your continued support of Census 2000 and for your efforts to encourage everyone, regardless of ethnic background, to participate in Census 2000.


John F. Long
Chief, Population Division

The following table presents the current proposal for a revision to the current coding list based on the Assyrian/Chaldean conference call of April 26.  The categories in the following table will have the same code and be summed under the heading Assyrian/Chaldena/Syriac:

Code- 482
Name of Group-  Aramean, Assyria, Assyrian, Jacobite, Nestorian, Sirayanee, Suryoyo, Suraye, Chaldean, Chaldo, Kaldany, Kaldu, Telkeffe, Syriac.

E-mails and faxes began to fill our in-boxes as our readers demanded an explanation:  "How could the U.S. Census Bureau agree with the opinion of a few individuals who represent no national or international Assyrian organizations and ignore the Assyrian American National Federation (see NEWS DIGEST) and all other Assyrian political bodies in the United States?"  Our readers also requested to know our official position on the Census 2000 re-classification of the Census Code 482.  Our response was simple:  ASSYRIAN ONLY.

ZENDA believes that the term Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac will be the bane of the Assyrian identity in Diaspora.  The introduction of these deadly "dashes and slashes" will catalyze the complete transformation of the term "Assyrian" to something we feel will be denuded of any historical truth.

The term "Assyrian" is the collective identity of several Syriac/Neo-Aramaic speaking populations, predominantly Christian, with historical roots in the Middle East, Mesopotamia (Bet-Nahrain) in particular.  At times, through centuries of internal religious conflicts within the Christian-Assyrian communities and with the support of external forces (Moslem neighbors and western powers) the inherent risks of identity-multiplication had reached a critical mass.  Ironically, the attempts of these same Moslem rulers in the Middle East to deny Assyrians any national identity and to reduce them to a few "tribal" populations and millets averted the dangers of any conscious pursuits of new identity-building.  With the massive migration of Assyrians from Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq in the 1970's and 80's small voices within the communities in Diaspora began to fuel the fires of diversification by legitimizing linguistic and religious differences as ethnic and even national identities.

Nevertheless, these minor attempts to engender confusion and promote conflict among different Assyrian religious and linguistic populations have been averted by a remarkable increase in political and cultural activities- ranging from hungerstrikes to political demonstrations and Christological agreements.

The plural character of the Assyrian identity is significant as it has helped to construct a stronger and more enduring nation after the demise of its territorial integrity in the 1920's.  The term Assyrian transcends all ethnic, religious, linguistic, geographic manifestations of the Syriac-speaking peoples of the Middle East and abroad.  It is a source of political legitimacy to which no dividing factors, such as the Census Bureau's "dashes and slashes", should ever be associated.  These symbolic gestures will blind the eyes of the future generations to the historical truth.

The Assyrian identity has survived over forty seven centuries of foreign invasions, religious schisms, and massacres.  With each mass exodus, theological conflict, and act of genocide a more diverse cultural heritage has emerged with its multiple religious, linguistic, and traditional flavor.  The Sooraye, Suryoyo, Arameans, Chaldeans, Yizidis, Sabeans, and many more segments of the Assyrian nation continue to elaborate on their shared linguistic, religious, and traditional practices in order to increase their affinity toward a common political goal.  Today no existing government can ever be allowed to modify the historical identity of the children of Bet-Nahrain.  The U.S. Census classification of "Assyrian" must remain the same as that used in 1990.  Any other modification of this term is unacceptable as the historical identity of the Assyrian people must never be compromised.


We urge our readers to likewise transform their outrage into action by:

1.  Contacting your local U.S. Congressional representative.
2.  Contacting the office of Congresswoman Anna Eshoo:  Click Here
3.  Voicing your support for the AANF position on this matter (see NEWS DIGEST):  Click Here
4.  Sending an email petition to the U.S. Census Bureau:  Click Here
5.  Asking your local Assyrian organization to form a local Census committees to better inform your community members



(ZNCWnews: Vatican)   The patriarchs and bishops of all Catholic churches of the Middle East will meet together for the first time in Beirut, Lebanon, from May 9 to 22.

Along with the seven patriarchs and the bishops of the region, the unprecedented meeting will bring together the superiors of religious orders in the region, and bishops from other countries who are subject to those Eastern patriarchs. Representatives from the bishops' conferences of Turkey, Iran, and northern Africa have also been invited to attend, along with delegates from Protestant and Orthodox communions. Altogether, 200 participants are expected to gather, representing 37 different nations. The Vatican delegation will include Cardinals Roger Etchegaray, the president of the Central Committee for the Jubilee; Achille Silvestrini, the prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches; and Francis Arinze, the president of the Pontifical Council for Inter-Religious Dialogue.

The goal of the meeting is "to reinforce the communion within the Church in the Middle East," Cardinal Etchegaray said. He noted that the decisions taken by the various Church leaders could "contribute to the preparations for the hoped-for visit by Pope John Paul II to the Holy Land." But beyond that, he added, the larger goal of the meeting was to "encourage a common witness, to guide the Catholic churches as they approach the year 2000."
The key questions on the agenda for the meeting include relations with Jews and Muslims, the exodus of Christians from the Holy Land, the status of the city of Jerusalem, and the preparations for the Jubilee Year.

Reprinted from an article in CatholicWatch News:  May 6, 1999.


Excerpts from a report by Patrick Goodenough, CNS Jerusalem Bureau Chief

(ZNCS: Jerusalem) As NATO forces continue to bombard Yugoslavia, ethnic Christian minorities in the Middle East have come out in concerted support of the Serbs, whom they see as victims of expansionist Islam.  Organizations representing ancient Christian communities in Lebanon, Egypt, Sudan and Iraq – some based in the region, others in exile in the West – have issued statements slamming the West for siding against "Christian Serbia."

The Serbs have been fighting an armed uprising by the Kosovo Liberation Army, using often brutal methods to quell the rebels' fight for autonomy.  The London-based Islamist group Al Muhajiroun issued a press release Thursday calling for Muslims to join the jihad to "liberate Muslim land" in Kosovo.

Christian minorities in the Middle East say they feel an affinity to the Serbs. Claiming historical repression by Islamic regimes and compatriots, many ethnic Christians in the Middle East regard Muslims with fear and distrust.

The Middle East Christian Committee, representing American Christians of Middle Eastern origin, said it did not understand "the biased policy of our government."  "We certainly criticize the authoritarian regime in Belgrade, and hope to see the conflict in Kosovo solved by diplomatic means \'85 However, we do not understand our decision makers who seem to be only in favor of Muslim rights and always opposed to Christian's rights in that region."

The New York-based Coptic American Union questioned U.S. participation in military strikes in Yugoslavia, while it says the administration ignores the plight of Coptic Christians in Egypt.  "We are sick and tired of watching our foreign policy being dictated by the Islamist lobby in Washington, D.C.," a union spokesman said in a statement.  American-Coptic Association representative George Abdelmassih, said Egypt's 12 million Copts supported "the Christian Serbian people" morally and politically.

Pierre Chamoun of the Chicago-based Assyrian Network, which represents the Assyrian minority in Iraq and Turkey, said U.S. foreign policy had become slave to Arab – and especially Saudi – interests.  "What they want is the establishment of three Islamist states in the Balkans at the expense of its original native peoples and identities," Chamoun charged.

Similar sentiments were expressed in a statement released by the World Maronite Union, based in Beirut, Lebanon: "We Maronite Catholic[s] feel that the Islamist-inspired attack against Orthodox Serbia is an aggression against all Middle East Christianity."



Press Release                                                                                                            May 7, 1999

The Assyrian American National Federation hereby announces it's official position on the matter of the classification of the Assyrian population in the United States of America as it relates to the year 2000 Federal Census project.

AANF is the largest Assyrian Culture organization in the world out side the Middle East. The AANF has 32 member organizations across the United Sates, which collectively represent more than 100,000 Assyrian American members. Therefore, the Organization finds it critical to officially announce that AANF will maintain it's 1990 Census position on how the ethnic Assyrian Americans should be classified and incorporated in the year 2000 Federal Census tracking program.

AANF maintains its position that all members Assyrian Americans should request to be classified as "Assyrians" only. The AANF further urge all the non-member Assyrians to contact the US Census Bureau and request that they be classified as "Assyrians" only. This is one of the most important decisions that you as an individual can make for the Assyrian people scattered around the world, and especially for the Assyrians in the Middle East. The Assyrians in the United States and around the world need to be identified as One ethnic group speaking with One Voice.

Sargon Lewie
Assyrian American National Federation


By Elki Essa reporting for ZENDA Magazine

(ZNDA: Chicago)  The unveiling of the Ashurbanipal bust took place at California State University, Stanislaus on Saturday, April 24, 1999.  The bust, designed by renowned Assyrian artist Fred Parhad, was donated to the university by Narsai David, a well-known chef and Food and Wine Editor at KCBS in San Francisco.  Mr. David is also the President of the Assyrian Aid Society of America.  The unveiling was coordinated by the University's Development Office.   Dr. Walter Strong, Vice President of Development and University Relations, welcomed the guests and gave a brief presentation on the importance of the Assyrian community in California's Central Valley. He was followed by Dr. Richard Curry, Provost at CSU, Stanislaus, who also commented on the achievements of the Assyrians, both past and present.

The bust is located in the lobby of the University's Library, a high-traffic location that is home to many of the University's administrators, including the President, as well as the Admissions and Records Office, Cashiers Office, Financial Aid Office, and several academic departments, computer labs, and classrooms. Ashurbanipal's sculpture is the first thing which comes to view when walking through the Library's front doors and will be a permanent fixture for future students to appreciate.

The unveiling was followed by the Assyrian Students Association Scholarship/Dinner Party at the Assyrian-American Civic Club. The party is given annually to raise funds for the Narsai David Scholarship Fund, which benefits Assyrian students at CSU, Stanislaus. Last year's award recipients -- Anna Esho, Edessa Kandy, Rowchelle Julian and Sabrina Eshaghi -- were presented with their certificates, as were this years CSU, Stanislaus graduates. Ashor Farhadi and the Generation X Band performed to the delight of everyone. The students' fund-raising efforts resulted in over $2,000 raised for the Narsai David Scholarship Fund.

A Message from the ASA:
The Assyrian Students Association would like to take this opportunity to thank the following organizations for their generosity:

The above organizations have proven their commitment to our Assyrian youth by supporting such endeavors and the students wish to express their sincerest gratitude for their gestures. If any of you have some time and are in the Turlock area, please drop by and take a look at the beautiful sculpture.


"I read your article on Nathan Urshan in this week's issue.  It is good to see someone recognizing the Assyrian heritage of this religious leader.  Though I am now Maronite by conversion, I was raised Pentecostal, and even though actively involved in the Society for Pentecostal studies for several years, even the scholarly community did not know of Urshan's Assyrian heritage- they said he was an Iranian!

However, there was one discrepancy I do wish to point out in your article.  The United Pentecostal Church is not the largest Pentecostal group; that honor goes to an African/American denomination called the Church of God in Christ, based out of Memphis, TN.  There are, to give your readers a little American religious history, two groups of Pentecostals- Trinitarian and Oneness.  The split came in 1917, if I remember correctly, due to a "revelation" received by a Pentecostal leader at a camp meeting in Arkansas by the name of R. E. MacAllister- that Christian baptism is supposed to be received in the name of Jesus only- hence those who hold to this position are also called "Jesus Only Pentecostals."  The UPC is the largest of these particular groups.

Keep on doing such a great job with ZENDA- it's much needed asset to the Assyrian community.  Shlomo ammoukh..."

David J. Thrower

"This is in reference to the recent efforts of your newsletter to publicize the teaching of the Assyrian language.

I was born and raised in Uruguay, which is not exactly a frequent Assyrian destination. Though very proud of his heritage, my Assyrian father (Givargis Warda) never had the time nor the patience to teach me the language while I was growing up. The one thing I did learn was The Lord's Prayer, because my father recited it so often. In those days, there were occasional Assyrian visitors from far off places, and I would often grasp the gist of their conversation. Today, there are no more Assyrian visitors.

The general approach to this language instruction is another matter.  Let me pose this question directly: Why should the learning of the language be linked to religious indoctrination? Any language -- ours or any other -- deserves to be learned for its own sake. I believe this mission is somewhat diluted when the language lesson resembles a kind of liturgy.

One other point. I suppose that the Assyrian language course is addressed primarily to English-speaking individuals. For the sake of not undermining the effort, I would strongly urge the correct use of the English language. Currently, the lessons are replete with grammatical and spelling errors; fairly or not, this can only undermine the credibility of the instruction. This problem can be dealt with easily by having the English lesson text reviewed prior to its transmission.

I am grateful to those who are devoting time to teaching us this ancient tongue, and I hope my comments are seen as a strong endorsement of their effort."

Gladys Warda
Montevideo, Uruguay

"An official meeting on March 25th, 1999, was held at the Mesopotamia Museum, Chicago with three representatives from the Census Bureau and the following Assyrian political parties and organizations:

· Assyrian Universal Alliance;
· Assyrian Democratic Movement (Zowaa);
· Assyrian Democratic Organization (Mtakasta);
· Assyrian Liberation Movement (Zowaa d Khoorara);
· AUA Political Arm;
· AUA Foundation;
· Assyrian American National Federation;
· Assyrian National Council Of IL;
· Assyrian Academic Society;
· Mesopotamia Museum;
· North Brook Institute For Syriac Studies;
· Assyrian Aid Society; and many individual Assyrians.

This meeting was to inform the individuals from the U.S. Census Bureau where Chicago-Assyrians stand on the "name-change" issue.

All representatives of the above parties and organizations unanimously voted on leaving the Assyrian Ancestry category to stand as it was in the 1990 Census -- meaning "Assyrian" without any slashes.  Everyone present at the meeting left quite satisfied with the decision reached.

A few weeks following this meeting a number of Assyrians decided to take it upon themselves to represent the entire Assyrian population of the U.S.  They participated in a conference-call behind closed doors with representatives from the Census Bureau and basically agreed to change the "Assyrian" category by adding the religious denomination of "Chaldean" and the language designation of "Syriac".  The individuals' names are as follows; Father Sarhad Jamo, Detroit; Dr. John Michael, Chicago; Ms. Eden Naby, East Coast; Abdil Messih Sadi, Chicago; Abgar Malol, Chicago; Ghassan Hanna, California.  An investigation is still underway to determine if others were involved.

Ironically, Dr. John Michael, Abdil Messih Sadi, and Abgar Malol had participated  in the March 25th meeting, however, that did not deter them from going against the overwhelming majority of Assyrians.

The first question that comes to mind is "who gave these individuals the right to represent the entire Assyrian population of the United States and to make this decision on their behalf?"  It seems history is repeating itself where a few individuals are deciding the fate of this nation and leading it to its demise.

The second question that surfaces regards the hundreds of martyrs that have died for the Assyrian name, "did they die knowing that in 1999 six arrogant and self-righteous Assyrians would change their identity, while resting in their graves, to Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac?"  They didn't die for a denomination or a language designation, they died for their ASSYRIAN identity.

The third question that blasts through the mind is "will these six people own-up to the repercussions of their thoughtless actions when Assyrians are denied their national and political rights in the homeland?"  The Assyrian cause is founded on the fact that Assyrians are direct descendants of the ancient Assyrians, which automatically ties them to the land of Bet Nahrain.  Agreeing to be labeled as Chaldean and Syriac automatically declares that the Assyrian identity is questionable, thereby, weakening and even destroying any rights Assyrians had/have/could have in the homeland.

It is every Assyrian's duty to voice their opinions and concerns to these self-designated representatives and the Census Bureau.   Let us not be silent; we must not allow history to repeat itself.  Let us remember that damaging decisions made today will effect our future."

S. Shabo

"I am very proud of your weekly online newsletter. It has helped our people to know what is going on concerning our Umtaa.

I want to state first of all that I am also an Assyrian youth, with deep nationalistic feelings such as our brothers and sisters in the Zenda magazine company.  I have read what that man Sternberg had to say about the Assyrian population in north Iraq.  When I read that, I noticed that the Kurds have begun their attacks against the Assyrian nation in a different way- FOR NOW.

Now they are trying to disunite us (example: Chaldean vs Assyrian).  Also they are trying to minimize our population in north Iraq. The Kurds are doing this because they fear us; they see a national movement amongst the Assyrian people and from history they know what it means when the Assyrian people are awakening. First of all let's get one thing straight: the Chaldeans are ASSYRIAN who follow the Chaldean Catholic Church. The Kurds are taking advantage of our religious denominations problem. One of our goals is to unite our denominations under our true name, ATOURAYAE.  And anyways, the followers of the Assyrian Church of the East are much more than the followers of the Catholic Church (chaldeans) in north Iraq.

I have asked many people who have resided in north Iraq on whether there are more Chaldean church followers or Assyrian church followers in north Iraq.   The people I asked this have laughed at me and said: "What kind of question is that; since when were there more Chaldeans in North Iraq.  Of course there are much more Atourayae".

I believe when the Assyrian nation came down from Hakkari and Urmia down to Iraq, there were about 70,000 to 100,000 Assyrians. There were only 20,000 Chaldean church followers in all of Iraq. Also the population of Assyrians being only 50,000 in north Iraq is not true at all. There are much more than that. If you look at all the Assyrian villages in north Iraq you could see that there is no way that there can be only 50,000 Assyrians in north Iraq. Like I said, the Kurds are trying to minimize us, because they see us flourishing once again in our land and fear our movement.  People like Francis Sarguis are supporting the Kurds in putting our hopes down.

I am only 18 and see these things. When the future generation rises, with no fear of the enemies and will do whatever it takes to free mother Assyria from the hands of our enemies, nothing will stop our resurrection. NOTHING."

Ninos Lazar

"In the issue of 26 april I was thanked for the news that I provided about the Hungerstrikes and Demonstrations in Europe. The credit was really too much for me alone.

I have been helped, with the German-English translations, enormously by two wonderful persons: Sami Sagur from Germany and Samira Gecer from Holland.

While I was listening to the choir in the "Yoldath-Alloho"  Syrian Orthodox church of Amsterdam,  I was wondering why, among the thousands of Assyrians here in Europe, it were these two persons who helped me? The sound of the history echoed through the Jacobite church and gave me the answer to my question: Beth- Zabday !!!

Yes, Samira and Sami both are originally from Beth-Zabday which is one of the most famous and unique villages of Tur-Abdin. Beth-Zabday, nowadays called "Hazakh" or "Idil" has an incredibly old history which goes back to the 9th century B.C.  In this time King Assurnasirpal of Assyria calls it " Tulsazabdani" or "Thilsaphta".

During the first decades of Christianity, it was the Light in the words of Mor Adday and Mor Aggay from Beth-Zabday that christianized Tur-Abdin. For centuries long it was a centre of Syrian-Orthodoxism till the missionaries from the Europe and USA caused major religious divisions through all the parts of our nation, and Beth-Zabday became the home of Jacobites, Catholics and Protestants.

The Beth-Zabdoye ( inhabitants of Beth-Zabday/Hazakh ), speaking a unique Arabic dialect,  have shown their bravery during the great massacres and resisted many attacks by the Kurds and Turks. Soon the famous saying was known through whole Tur-Abdin: " It's the soil of Beth-Zabday that gives you Bravery".

In the days when the Ottoman empire collapsed and the borders of the new Turkish Republic were closing,  many of the inhabitants of Beth-Zabday fled to Syria because of the threat of oppression and new massacres. One of the Beth-Zabdoye who fled with his parents to Beth-Zaleen ( Qamishly) in Syria,
is the famous and living legend Malfono Yuhanon Qashisho, now living in Sweden. This son of Beth-Zabday, who ran the Hujada Assyrian magazine of Sweden for many years, is one of the pioneers of the Assyrian national movement among the Syrian-Orthodox/Jacobite Church.

I salute the sons and daughters of Beth-Zabday all over the world, your ancestors have contributed a lot to the Pride of our Nation.

Fushun bashlomo Ham h'ubo d Umthan Othurayto-Surayto,"

"a son of the village Arbo, north Assyria/Beth Nahrin"

Matay A.A. Arsan



As a member of the joint Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac committee that made the proposal to the Census Bureau, I can assure you that I am extremely proud with our achievement.

You might not see things as they're, but that's your right. Just remember neither you nor any organization have the right to impose its preferred name on other communities of our nation (something that the extremists members of the Assyrian community are yet to face in reality). Reality is the Chaldeans (apart from few people like myself) do not identify themselves as Assyrians. The same is true with Syriacs. Those who identify themselves as Assyrians do not represent more than 10% of our nation, with close to 80% of them living in Diaspora and not in "Assyria" or Bet Nahrain. Another reality check for the extremists to face.

Our historical decision on April 26, 1999 was made after we were faced with the option of either allowing the Census Bureau to tabulate the Chaldeans as a separate ethnic category (which I am sure the Assyrian extremists, Baathy government and the Kurds would love to see) or go for the compromise of the Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac category with its powerful implications that we are one nation, one ethnic group, one code, and one total. Add to that, statistics will not be published to show how many will register as Assyrians, Chaldeans, or Syriacs. Part of our joint agreement that to do so will be counter productive, and against our belief that we're one indivisible nation with its different communities identifying themselves with different names.

Most of all, our decision is based on a mutual agreement that we'll be forming a "National Name Committee" compromising of scholars and religious members of the different communities of our nation. That committee will meet and agree CONSCIOUSLY on an acceptable name that will be the official name our nation will be called by. The task of the committee is to conclude prior to Census 2010 so we can go back again to the Census Bureau and submit our SINGLE, AGREED BY ALL, name. (Here, you can use your resources to lobby for the Assyrian name, but you must convince other communities to accept it and not impose it on them).

Our decision will have the greatest positive impact on our people in Iraq (where it matters most). Our signal is clear to the Kurds and Baath government and its opposition that Chaldeans (who compromise 75% of our nation there), Assyrians, and Syriacs are ONE NATION. This signal is sent not by what some small Assyrian political groups are claiming, but by the MAIN STREAM Chaldean, Assyrian, and Syriac representatives. Such message is more powerful (and with positive consequences) than your agenda of "keeping the purity of the name intact". What matters most is the UNITY of our nation and not the PURITY of the name. What matters most is to add the resources of the MAIN STREAM Chaldean and Syriac communities to work hand in hand with the members of the Assyrian community to achieve our national rights. That is, instead of wasting our resources fighting over the name issue and in direct collision with each other.

Finally, and again since I was (and still is) an active member of the Chaldean, Assyrian, and Syriac communities of our nation, I can assure you that what we did on April 16, 1999 will enter our nation's history as the brightest, long due decision for the survival of our Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac nation. One nation.. (currently) different names.

Time will heal the name-division, but hate statements, imposition of will on others, and ignorant acts will only serve to deepen the divisions in our nation. All to the delight of the racist Baathists and their Kurdish counter parts. It's your choice which side you want history to count you on.

Our nation's march towards complete unity has just begun!

Ghassan Hanna
Joint Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac Census 2000 Committee


It is important that we arrive at the gates of the 21st Century with a solid understanding of what the term "Assyrian" means. We should sincerely analyze the impact of the Assyrian name on the unity of the different religious sects that constitute our nation. What is causing the term Assyrian to become a name of one religious sect (i.e. the Church of the East) rather than a name of a nation (made of several religious sects)? To solve a problem we need to know its source, and treat it properly. Hiding our heads in the sand will never rid us of any problem. The basic fundamental issue is the common ethnic name, however each religious sect of the Syriac speaking churches has its own definition of the term Assyrian, and in most cases contradicts the definition of the other sect. Based on this fact, the definition of the term "Assyrian" is a fundamental issue. And this is where we should all start.

On May 1st 1999, Mr. Fred Aprim posted an article titled: Year 2000 Census, at the Assyrian forum. Talking about the issues regarding the change of the category name "Assyrian" to "Assyrian/Chaldean", and he was right in questioning: Who gives any Assyrian organization the right to speak on behalf of the Assyrian people? I would reword his question as: Who gives any Nestorian organization the right to speak on behalf of the Assyrian nation? Then he continues saying: Today the plan is to mix the two, tomorrow they will drop the Assyrian name completely... Wake up Assyrians, understand the consequences of this plot. Why is everything being done in silence?

Dear Fred, let me answer you in simple terms: No one is selling the Assyrian name, however the Church of the East (and the majority of its members believe that the name is their own property) and is causing this tension by monopolizing the Assyrian name and turning it to become a synonym to Nestorian! This is the essence of the problem! If the Church of the East drops the term Assyrian from their official name (similar to what the Syrian Orthodox Church did), then the term Assyrian will return to its old glory and represent us all.

I believe that the Church of the East had turned the Assyrian name from a National name to a religious name, consequently the category Assyrian in the census implies Nestorian (i.e. a religious sect, nothing more), and the Chaldeans as well as the Jacobites realize what had happened, and that is why the Chaldean Federation is asking for the addition of the Chaldean name, because the Church of the East does not represent them, and I may add nor does it represent the Jacobites. I am an Assyrian Jacobite and member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, and after thorough analysis of the situation, I support our Chaldean brothers 100%, and we as Jacobite are in the same boat with the Chaldeans, we also will request the census bureau to add yet a third name to this category and that is "Syryoyo". This way the Syrian Orthodox Church will be equally represented too, another option will be (as you said) to drop all Assyrian/Chaldean/Syryoyo names completely (maybe this is the best solution, because then we don't need to fight amongst ourselves any more), and we would be equally represented by having none of our names, ironic isn't it!

Please understand that my statements are not said because I want to create a further split, but rather because the Assyrian Federation had turned into a Nestorian organization (and does not represent the Jacobites, nor the Chaldeans). Consequently each religious sect has the full right to demand equal representation when another sect is trying to represent them or talk on their behalf. There is no such thing as an national umbrella organization where all these sects are equally represented, there isn't any democratically elected national Assyrian body that has members belonging to all our different sects that is entitled to represent them and talk on their behalf, so each sect has to represent itself, and that is fair.

Let me give you a simple example, the Assyrian Federation dropped the old Assyrian flag that was designed when (earlier this century) the Jacobites, Nestorians, and Chaldeans used to work together, {Horizontally, it was: Purple (top), White (center) and Red (bottom) with three stars (on the corner of the purple) representing the three sects: Nestorian, Jacobites and Chaldeans}, and replaced it with the modern Assyrian flag designed by a Nestorian (with one star only!) and without the consultation or approval of neither the Jacobite nor the Chaldean communities (does that lone star represent the Nestorians?).

What further convinced me of my decision concerning the rights of the Chaldeans to be represented under their own name, was an article published in Zenda magazine, where it is clear that from the Nestorian perspective (the term Nestorian is identical to Assyrian, and different from Chaldean), Assyrian is now a name of a religious sect, and not a national name! Because if Assyrian was a common name of a nation then the staff of Zenda would have replaced both Nestorians and Chaldeans terms by the name Assyrians (and not only the Nestorian term), or at least they would have kept Nestorians as is and totaled Nestorians plus Chaldeans to be Assyrians, but neither was the case!

On Neesan 12, 6748 / April 12, 1999, Zenda, Volume V Issue 8. Zenda published an article under the topic of: THE LIGHTHOUSE, titled: A COUNT OF THE ASSYRIAN POPULATION IN NORTHERN IRAQ, WITHOUT A GENERAL CENSUS OPERATION, by: Alexander Sternberg, Bonn, Germany, April 1999. This article was concluded with a comment by the staff of Zenda. The following sentence specifically attracted my attention: In the original article, the author uses the term Nestorian in reference to Assyrians. To me this statement is more important than the result of the census itself! Because it implies that someone took the liberty in replacing the term Nestorian by Assyrian! If the name is defined wrongly to start with, then the result of the census is meaningless even it was conducted with the utmost accuracy. To me the issue is not the accuracy of the numbers (because numbers could vary), but rather the accuracy of the name that identifies the numbers!

I believe that the way Zenda staff haphazardly replaced the term Nestorian by Assyrian was wrong because they created a problem rather than clarifying the issue. Instead, Zenda could have added few comments (in brackets) to clarify Mr. Sternberg's data and that would have placed things in the proper Assyrian perspective, such as:

Rather than presenting this list (which implies that they are talking about religious sects, and that Assyrians are different than Chaldeans):

  Group                        Population
Chaldeans                       21,000
Assyrians                          8,271
Armenians                           840
Total                              30,211  (Typo error, total doesn't match)
My Count *                    33,215  (*Mr. Sternberg's Count)

Zenda should have presented it this way (totaling all Syriac speaking Churches [in Northern Mesopotamia] under the common national ethnic Assyrian name):

          Group                               Population
Chaldeans Catholics                       21,000
Nestorian (Church of the East)         8,271
Jacobites (Syrian Orthodox)        (Not Counted)
Syrian Catholics                        (Not Counted)
Sub Total (Assyrians)                    29,271  (Missing Syrian Orthodox & Catholics)
Armenians                                        840
Total (Christians)                          30,111
Mr. Sternberg's Count                   33,215

It seems to me that the editorial committee either knowingly (or unknowingly) are using the terms Nestorian and Assyrian as synonyms, and in either case it is a terrible mistake. I disagree with the terminology that Assyrian means Nestorian, because not every Nestorian is an Assyrian, there are thousands of Nestorians in India who are ethnically Indians and different from the Assyrians of the Middle East (although they share a similar faith). On the other hand not every Assyrian is a Nestorian, for example: Ashurbanipal, Sargon, Teglat, Senharib, and all the other Assyrian kings were not Nestorians (if being a Nestorian is a prerequisite to be called Assyrian then all those Assyrian Kings would not be considered Assyrians!) and similarly are other religious sects that are ethnically Assyrians but not followers of the Nestorian faith, such as Chaldean Catholics, Syrian Orthodox (Jacobites) and Syrian Catholics. So we are back to square one (i.e. the definition of the term Assyrian).

The term Assyrian should not be used alone without a prefix or suffix if it is intended to imply the name of a church. Although the Jacobites of the Assyrian Orthodox Church (generally known as Syrian Orthodox) were not counted, yet some readers could come to the wrong conclusion that Jacobites were meant by the term Assyrian and not Nestorians in the census, because some people identify Jacobites sometimes as Assyrians without a suffix or a prefix! So it is important to add a suffix or prefix to the term Assyrian to clarify who is meant by the name.

I believe that using Assyrian as synonym to Nestorian will mess up the common national ethnic name and alienating the Jacobites, Syrian Catholics and the Chaldean Catholics, and place obstacles in the progress of the Assyrian national movement. By alienating those sects the Nestorians alone are a minority in Northern Beth-Nahrin, and consequently a "Nestorian sectarian religious cause" is of no interest to neither the Chaldeans nor the Jacobites, not even if it is called Assyrian. Just look at Mr. Sternberg's data, which states that there are 8,271 Nestorian in northern Beth Nahrain, and let the numbers talk, (there is ten times that figure in Chicago alone!). Are you seeking the religious rights of those 8,000 people? If so, I don't think that there is a religious persecution in Iraq! And if you seeking the national rights of those 8,000 people? I think your mentality is still in the tribal age, because alone, they don't constitute a nation!

The name issue is a very important one. The Assyrian name was officially first used by the Syrian Orthodox Church in America (the Jacobites), and long before the Nestorians adopted it officially. Then The Jacobites realized that the Assyrian name has political implications and consequences, so they decided to phase it out as the official name of the church, for two reasons: a- Separating religion from politics. b- To prevent it from becoming a synonym to the term Syrian Orthodox, which consequently would alienate the Nestorians and Chaldeans. So it was a decided to reverse the action and return to the original common religious name as Suryoyo in Western dialect (i.e. comparable to Suryaya in Eastern dialect). Based on the understanding that all Syriac speaking churches (that originated in Beth Nahrin/Mesopotamia) were called Suryoyo/Suryaya in the past, and leaving the term Assyrian to be a common national name that will cover all those different sects. What happened later was that the Nestorian Church officially adopted the Assyrian name and now the term Assyrian is on the verge of becoming synonym to Nestorian, and that is causing many nationalist Chaldeans and Jacobites to pull back and wonder what is going on! Because they are starting to feel more and more that it is no not representing them.

I don't mean to offend anyone or any church, in fact I have high respect to all the churches that constitute the Assyrian nation and their leaders as well. However if the Church of the East is sincerely looking for the national interest of the Assyrian nation and the unity (on equal footing) with the sister Syriac speaking churches (I am not talking about theological unity, since each church can still follow its own rites and faith, and no one is asked anyone to change his religious believes) where all would use a common "Assyrian" national name outside our churches (and not as part of the official name of any church), then the Church of the East will have to face reality and make a wise and difficult decision in the future, and that is the decision of keeping or dropping the term "Assyrian" from their name (just like the Syrian Orthodox Church did). They have two options: a- Keep the term Assyrian in their official name and eventually it will become synonym to Nestorian, or a name of a religious sect, and the Chaldeans and Jacobites will have nothing to do with it. b- Drop it and allow the Assyrian name to become the common ethnic national name for all the Syriac speaking sects. It all depends on their sincere interest in the progress of the Assyrian cause, if they really love it they must be willing to "Set it Free" and stop monopolizing it, and eventually the Assyrian name will get back its old glory, and become the umbrella name to all the Syriac speaking sects.

It is important to clear this issue once and for all. Are we talking about a Nestorian religious cause (disguised under the name Assyrian)? Because if that is the case, then Jacobites and Chaldeans will have nothing to do with it. Go ahead and fight for your own cause with 8,000 people in Northern Beth Nahrain! And I bet you, if the gates of immigration are opened now, most of those 8,000 people will end up in Chicago eventually! Wake up and smell the coffee! Nestorians alone do not have a cause without the backing of the Chaldeans and Jacobites! The Chaldeans don't need you, you need them! They are the majority! They are more educated, they are financially stronger! I have many Chaldeans friends, they resent the fact that Nestorians consider themselves to be the leaders of the so called Assyrian nation, because they realize that when a Nestorian is saying Assyrian he is meaning Nestorian, and when they says we should all become Assyrian they mean that we should all convert to Nestorianism.

General Agah Petros the leader of the Assyrian army during the first world war was a member of the Chaldean Catholic Church! Ashur Yusuf the founder of modern Assyrian nationalism, was the first Assyrian martyr, because he was the first person that was executed by the Ottomans for his Assyrian national believes (and not for being a Christian) he was a Jacobite and a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church. I am not saying that there were no contributions from the Nestorians to the Assyrian national cause, but rather that it is essential to educate the average Nestorian (even some of the so called leaders) who thinks that all those people are Nestorians.

It is about time to place the issues of concern on the table and discuss them openly, and not shove them under the carpet! Other than the name, there is the issue of the language: What would be the official language of such a unity? Classical or colloquial Syriac? If Classical, would it be Eastern or Western dialect? And if colloquial would it be Swadaya or Turoyo? As to the Alphabet, which one Eastern or Western or Estrangelo or Cuneiform characters? Where do you draw the line? And who draws the line? Are we talking about a unity on equal footing? Or a type of dictated unity where Nestorians impose their ideas on the others? Because if that is the case neither the Chaldeans not the Jacobites are interested in such a unity! You go your way and we go our own way, and in case we meet at a crossroad we can greet each others saying Shlomo/Shlama, but that is as far as it would go!

The fact is that we have to sit together and sincerely clear things up, and not be silent and hold grudges against each others. If you are hoping that our differences will eventually solve themselves up sometime in the future, that is a mistake, because if they don't, we will be faced with a greater mess in the future that might cause everything that we worked on to collapse. And frankly speaking, no one is interested or willing to waste his time and effort in an uncertain thing.

The following are few common pit-holes that many Nestorians fall in knowingly (or unknowingly), and it is creating a backfire from Chaldeans as well as Jacobites, and alienating many of them. In fact it is hurting Jacobite and Chaldean nationalists because they are stabbed in the back by not being accepted as Assyrian nationalist because they are not Nestorians since some Nestorians have a different definition to the term Assyrian, and they are labeled as Nestorians by their own church and become an outcast because they are calling themselves Assyrians, so they are hit with a double whammy! This is not felt among Nestorians, and it is about time that they realize the consequences of their terminology and actions!

A common question: Are you Assyrian or Chaldean? Or are you Assyrian or Syrianaya? Such a question will imply that Assyrian means Nestorian and Syrianaya means Jacobite, and that both Jacobite and Chaldean are different from Assyrian. Smart terminology for achieving national unity! Also as if we don't have enough names, the Nestorians introduced a new one which is "Syrianaya" (transliterated from the Arabic: Syriani) to indicate Syrian Orthodox Jacobites, while the origin of the term Syriani is Suryoyo/Suryaya which the Jacobites use, and is common to all Syriac speaking churches. So why invent a new name? Unless the Nestorians think that they are the only Suryaya/Suryoyo and the other group is Syrianaya and that is different than Suryaya/Suryoyo!

Another common statement by Nestorians is telling a Jacobite, why don't you speak Assyrian (meaning Swadaya), while that Jacobite could be fluent in Classical Syriac (which [by the way] is call "Lishana Atiqa" by Nestorians), or he might speak the colloquial Western "Turoyo" but yet he doesn't know the Eastern "Swadaya" so he is labeled as not-an-Assyrian because he doesn't speak the so called "Modern Assyrian". A dialect of neo-Aramaic with so many Turkish, Persian and Kurdish words that infiltrated it, (i.e. a corrupted form of Syriac!).

Although the Syrian Orthodox Church uses the Western style of characters, they have no problem in using the Eastern style too (in fact many of their ancient books are written in Eastern style). On the other hand the Church of the East refrains from using the Western style so far, not even symbolically. I wonder why?

Ironically, some Nestorians think that Eastern Assyrians are Nestorians who live in the Middle East and Western Assyrians are Nestorians who immigrated to the western world (i.e. to: Europe, America, Australia), and they have no clue that Western Assyrians are Jacobites who belong to a different religious sect. Jacobites are called western Assyrians because after the fall of Ninveh the Assyrian King Ashur Uballit (II) retreated with his people and his army westward to Harran (because the attack was coming from the east, north and south). They settled in the regions of Harran, Urhoy (Urfa/Edessa), Malatya, Adyaman, Severak, Amid (Diyarbkir), Kharput, Aintab, Mardin, Qinneshrin, etc. this is the same region that the Jacobites come from (i.e. western Beth Nahrin), consequently there is no question about the Assyrian identity of the Jacobites, they are the descendants of the Royal Assyrians. For those who question the Jacobites' national identity, they should check their own identity first! And as a matter of fact western Syriac has preserved the (O/U) sound ending of words as in ancient Assyrian/Akkadian (example: Abo/Abu = Father), contrary to eastern Syriac which has the (A) sound ending of words as in ancient Aramaic (example: Aba = Father).

Another identity problem is surfacing up in the Middle East, and the Nestorians are not realizing it yet! Maybe it would allow the Nestorian Church to reconsider the issue of keeping or dropping the Assyrian name. Please follow the sequence of events: All through history during the Arab rule in the Middle East, it is well known and documented that both Jacobites and Nestorians were known as "Al-Suryan" in Arabic (derived from the term Suryoyo/Suryaya [= Syriac] common to both sects). It is stated in Arabic literature and history books that "Al-Suryan Al-Yaaqiba wa Al-Suryan Al-Nasatira" (Syriac Jacobites and Syriac Nestorians) had great contribution to the intellectual movement (during the Omayyad and Abbasid periods) in the fields of knowledge: translation, sciences, medicine, astronomy, etc. and that they were the bridge that preserved and transmitted Greek and Syriac knowledge to the Arabs. This knowledge was later transmitted back to Europe after the dark ages and allowed the renaissance movement to begin. Consequently both sects (Nestorians and Jacobites) had great contribution towards the progress of humanity.

Now in the 20th century, the church of the East officially adopted the Assyrian name (which wasn't used previously), as a result we got a mix-up between the a national and religious terminology, and neither one is being fully comprehended, add to this, it is indirectly backfiring on the Nestorians themselves. Here is why: The name "Assyrian Church of the East" is now translated to Arabic as "Kanisat Al-Sharq Al-Ashuriyya", while the name "Syrian Orthodox Church" (by dropping both the Assyrian term), is being translated as "Al-Kanisa Al-Suryaniyya AL-Orthodoxsiyya", the difference is very obvious: In Arabic, one Church has the term "Suryani" (Syriac) and the other doesn't! The new generation of Nestorians that live in the Middle East might not realize the contribution of their forefathers who were known as "Al-Suryan Al-Nasatira" because they don't identify themselves neither as "Suryan" (Syriacs) nor as "Nasatira" (Nestorians) but rather as "Ashuriyyen" (Assyrians), so they are unknowingly dropping this credit, and even if they realize that, the average Arabs (the majority of which are not versed in this terminology) would not realize this link that "Al-Ashuriyyen" (Assyrians) are related to "Al-Suryan AL-Nasatira" (Syriac Nestorians). On the other hand who is picking up the credit of any terminology using "Al-Suryan" (Syriac)? It is the "Syrian Orthodox Church"! Because by dropping both the "Assyrian" and "Jacobite" terms from their official name, the "Syrian Orthodox Church" is capitalizing on the term "Al-Suryan" (Syriac) and monopolizing it exactly as the Nestorians are monopolizing the "AL-Ashuri" (Assyrian) name. What do we have now? Two churches: One capitalizing and monopolizing a religious (Syriac / Suryoyo / Suryaya / Syrian) name, and getting the credit of the past 2000 years of Syriac Christian heritage, and the other capitalizing and monopolizing a national (Assyrian / Aturaya / Othuroyo / Ashuri) name, and getting the credit of the pre-Christian Assyrian heritage, and a future of an uncertain Assyrian cause.

I apologize if I offended anyone, or any group, that was not my intention, I wrote this because I care for the Assyrian name, which I am proud off. Although I am talking for myself only, but I believe that many Jacobites and Chaldeans who care too, agree with the points I raised, they are either too shy or don't want to offend the other side or don't have the courage to say it, and now that I opened this can of worms, they can discuss it openly and freely, we should start our house cleaning as of now! It is about time that things are put in perspective, and that we start to solve our problems rather than hide them, or hide our heads!

Hanna Hajjar



Ramsin Ganja
Toronto, Canada
Computer Networking Major at Seneca College
New puppy:  Azizie    Click Here

Personal Website:    Click Here
Ramsin's Guestbook:    Click Here

AOL Instant Messenger: Ramsin 78
ICQ #: 21510585
Nineveh On Line (NOL) Nicknames: Ramsin & DaGanjaMan

Got a personal website? Or just aching to tell other readers about yourself?  Send your info (hopefully accompanied by a photo of yourself) to ZENDA.


Assyrian Forum
Assyria Web Chat
Nineveh Cafe
Suryoyo Online Forum

Links to Other Assyrian Websites

U.S. Census 2000 Petition
Assyrian United Organizations of California
Dr. Freidoun Atouraya
Unicode Consortium Website on Syriac Language


Image of St. Mary:  soorta d'Mart Maryam


BC (1800)

The Hittites, an Indo-European people, adopt the cuneiform script invented in Bet-Nahrain and adapt it to their own language.  In 1595 the Hittite king Murshili attacks northern Bet-Nahrain and rapidly moves towards Babylon.  In no time he captures the Great City and plunders its treasures and gods.  Upon returning to his Hittite capital, Hattusha, Murshili is assassinated by his own officers.

Babylon, Oates

AD (637)

The Arabs conquer the cities of Antioch, Aleppo, and Manbij and enslave the people of the villages roundabout.  Khalif Umar appoints Mu'awiya over Syria and after capturing Urhai (Edessa) kills all its Byzantine (non-Syriac) residents.

From the writings of Theoanes and Agapius



We know quite well from the pages of ancient and modern history that the great leaders of the world, ancient and modern, realized the importance of this aspect called unity in international affairs.  Alexander, whom history, in its ignorance of true dignity, calls "the Great," knew perfectly well that the road to victory was fist to begin at home.  First, he had to unite all the Greek city-states, recover what had been lost, and then march, strike, and conquer.  Napoleon, a military genius, realized very well that if France wanted to become a determining factor in European politics, unification was inevitable.  The shrewd Bismarck found the solution to the dilemma of his nation in the unification of all the distracted states.  But we Assyrians do not know history, nor like to read books to learn about peoples, nations, politics, and important events.  Yet we want things and events to happen in our favor by mere chance or by some for of magical formula.

If we Assyrians want to accomplish anything worthwhile, then let us begin from the beginning.  Let us unite in mind, efforts, socially, politically, and religiously, and in God's good time the victory shall come, or at least the road to it will open.  It calls for a new dedication and a new heroic effort.  We may belong to different organizations, denominations, professions, and occupations, but an ardent sense of unity must always bind us together in the unbroken bond of love and national interest.

Let it be known that we cannot face any enemy, no matter how trivial, nor even decide on any issue no matter how minor as long as we are disunited and hence disorganized.  Our silly order of disunity and disorganization must absolutely be dissolved once and for all, and an order abiding unity must categorically rise on its ruins.

An Excerpt from Rev. Dr. Peter H. Talia's Our Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow


May 14, 1911:  Ninous Foundation, the first Assyrian organization in Tehran, Iran is founded.



In the March of 1998 the Assyrian Union of Greece was re-established to improve the living conditions of the Assyrians in that country.  The Union was first established in 1934 to aid the first wave of Assyrian refugees to Greece at the turn of this century and resided in the areas of Makronisos, Keratsini (Pireus), Saronikos, Egaleo and Kalamata.  AUG is a  non-profit, charitable organization and is operated under the direction of its current Board of Directors, elected in 1998.

The main focus of the Union is to provide support to the growing number of Assyrian refugees in Greece with such basic needs as food, clothing, and shelter.  AUG also helps these refugees in adapting to their new environment and the Greek society in general.  Among many important activities of this organization are:

Greek language and history classes for the Assyrians
Aramaic/Assyrian language classes
Cultural and social events including concerts
Public relations efforts to increase Assyrian awareness in the Greek communities

The Assyrian Union of Greece aims to accomplish mutual respect between the Assyrians and the Greeks and to promote friendly relations.  AUG boasts a membership of 400 Assyrian families as over 100 other applications are currently being processed.

ZENDA thanks Mr. Otto M. David, president of the Assyrian Union of Greece, for the information provided above.
AUG can be contacted at:

Miriofitou 105
Egaleo, Greece

Phone/FAX : +3 01 5317571


May 15

Assyrian American Association of San Jose
Saratoga Springs Park
Entertainer:  Robin Hawil
Kabob BBQ Lunch
From 10:00 am
Admission:  $5 per adult, $3 for children over 6 years

May 27-31
May 29
A C N C  '99

The Fifth Assyrian Community Networking Conference
Double Tree Hotel 
10:30 AM to 2:00 PM 
Organized by: Nineveh On-Line (www.nineveh.com)
Click Here

Jun 18

The aim of this series of forums is two-fold: firstly, to give academics and professionals who work on computational projects related to Syriac studies an opportunity to meet and share their work and experience; secondly, to provide scholars and computer users with presentations and talks which may
be of help in practical applications such as word processing, fonts and other user-related software.
Location:  University of Notre Dame, Indiana
For all matters regarding SyrCOM-99, contact:
Dr. George A. Kiraz (SyrCOM-99)
Language Modeling Research
Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies
Room 2D-446, 700 Mountain Ave., Murray Hill, NJ 07974
Fax. +1 908 582 3306 (Attn. G. Kiraz)
E-mail: gkiraz@research.bell-labs.com

Sep 1-6 

Sponsored by the Assyrian-American National Federation

Jan 28,

Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Assyrian Rite (Chaldean and Malabarese)
Basilica of St Cecilia in Trastevere

Cycles & Observances of the Middle Eastern Christian & Assyrian Liturgical Calendars

Feast of St. James
Memorial of Mar Addai the Apostle
Commemoration of Mar Giwargis, Mar Sargis, Mar Bacus
Feast of St. John, the Evangelist
Commemoration of Mar Addai (Thaddaeus)
Feast of St. Simon, the Disciple
 The Holy Feast of Ascension
Intercession of St. Mary for Crops
 Golden Friday

AAC = Ancient Assyrian Church of the East
ACE = Assyrian Church of the East
CCC = Chaldean Catholic Church
COP = Coptic Church
MCC= Maronite Catholic Church
MSO = Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church
SCC = Syrian Catholic Church of Antioch
SKC = Syrian Knanaya Church
SOC = Syrian Orthodox Church



This Week's Contributors:
in alphabetical order

 Dr. George Habash
 United Kingdom
 Good Morning Bet-Nahrain
 Dr. Zaineb Istrabadi 
New York
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain
Tony Khoshaba
Assyrian Surfing Posts

Thank You For Referring A Friend to ZENDA:

Matay Arsan


ZENDA Magazine is published every Monday. Views expressed in ZENDA do not necessarily represent those of the ZENDA editors, or any of our associated staff.  This publication reserves the right, at its sole discretion, not to publish comments or articles previously printed in or submitted to other journals. ZENDA   reserves the right to publish and republish your submission in any form or medium. All letters and messages  require the name(s) of sender and/or author. All messages published in the SURFS UP! section must be in 500 words or less and bear the name of the author(s). Distribution of material featured in ZENDA is not restricted, but permission from ZENDA is required.  This service is meant for the exchange of information, analyses and news. To subscribe, send e-mail to: zenda@ix.netcom.com.

P.O. Box 20278   San Jose, California   95160   U.S.A.
Voice:      (408) 918-9200
   Fax:      (408) 918-9201

The Directory of ZENDA News Sources
ZNAA (Assyrian Academic Society-Chicago)
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAF (Agence France-Presse)
ZNAH (Al-Ahram Newspaper, London)
ZNAL (Al-Hayat, London)
ZNAI  (Assyrian International News Agency)
ZNAK (American Kurdish
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNCN (ClariNews)
ZNCS (Conservative News Service)
ZNIF (Iraq Foundation)
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNIN (Iraqi National Congress)
ZNLT (Los Angeles Times)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNMS (Mar Shimun Magazine-Canada)
ZNMW (Mideast Newswire)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNNY:  New York Times
ZNPR:  Palestinian Review
ZNQA (Qala Atouraya- Moscow)
ZNRF (Radio Free Iraq)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSH (Shotapouta Newsletter)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNSM (Shufimafi Lebanese News)
ZNSO (Syrian Orthodox News "SOCNews")
ZNTD (Turkish Daily News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)
ZNCW:  Catholic World News