Volume V Issue 7
Neesan 5, 6748 April 5, 1999
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|The Lighthouse||Dr. Eprime Eshag|
|Good Morning Bet-Nahrain||Mar Bidawid's Trip to Vatican Delayed|
|News Digest||Snodal Session of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Damascus|
|Surfs Up||"The good, the bad, and the ugly"|
|Surfers Corner||Invitation to Commemorate the Armenian Genocide
History Teachers Discuss Gilgamesh at UC Berkeley
|Message in the Bottle||The Assyrian "Bebeto"|
|Assyrian Surfing Posts||Gilgamesh the Hero: Lesson Plans for Grades 6 & 7|
|Pump up the Volume||Sting & Honey Bee|
|Back to the Future||Sargon of Akkad & Bar Sauma in Vatican|
|Literatus||The Assyrian Who Will Rule the World|
|This Week in History||AUA at Po|
|Calendar of Events||Lecture: The Assyrian Diet|
All blue links throughout this issue are hyperlinks to other sections on this page or featured websites.
DR. EPRIME ESHAG
Although the work and life of Dr. Eprime (Aprim) Yaqu Eshag is little known to his fellow Assyrians, he remains one of the most influential political economist of this century. His work has already been translated in several languages and his theories and provocative analysis is acknowledged among scholarly circles in every major university and think tank. It is our hope at ZENDA that the brief biography prepared on Professor Eshag, who constantly prided himself in his Assyrian roots, will bring the recognition he so much deserved in life.
Dr. Eprime Eshag was born in Urmia in 1918. His parents, Yaqu and Shakar, were from the village of Qaradjalu. He was only a few months old when his father, a preacher in the Church of the East, following the assassination of Patriarch Mar Benyamin Shimmun, fled with his family to escape from the massacre of Assyrians by the invading Turkish troops. It was here in the Russian Azerbaijan where his mother died. Eprime and his older brother, Vania, were raised by his stepmother Anna. His father and step-mother returned to Urmia in 1926. Eshag's step-siblings, Nellie and David, were born to Yacu and Anna.
Dr. Eshag's early years of education were spent at the American Mission School in Urmia. While obtaining his secondary education in Iran he was influenced by Dr. Taghi Arani, who was later killed in prison for being a Marxist. In Tehran, he did so well at school that the leading Iranian newspaper, Ettela-at, published an article about Eshaq entitled "The Successful School Career of an Assyrian Student". Eshag won a scholarship provided by Banke Melli of Iran to study in London. Only twelve students from several hundred participants were selected.
In 1936 Eshag won the top scholarship from Bank Melli Iran (Iran's National Bank) to study accountancy at the London School of Economics. In 1942, he passed his accountancy finals with distinction. Concurrently, he had enrolled as an external student at London University from which he graduated in economics with honors. He returned to Iran in 1945. Upon his return to Iran Eshaq found his birthplace confronting the separatism in Azerbaijan backed by the Soviet Union and the leftist Tudeh Party in Iran.
After a brief period working in the Bank in Tehran he pursued private practice in accountancy. At the same time he was an active member of the Tudeh Party. Unhappy about the Party's weak organization he criticized the internal leadership of the group in a pamphlet which he did not sign. He was afraid that an Assyrian Christian minority could not effectuate any political change. Such Tudeh-i colleagues as Ebrahim Golestan became Eshag's life-long friends. At the Bank he organized a union and after refusing to dissolve it, was asked to leave. Unhappy about his status as a Christian minority he returned to England.
He started graduate studies at the London School of Economics before being evacuated to Cambridge where he completed his Ph.D. doctoral dissertation on the history of monetary theory. He was already spotted by John Maynard Keynes, widely known as this century's foremost macroeconomist. Keynes had described Eshag to Abul Hassan Ebtehaj, Banke Melli's formidable head, as "a daring young man who has criticized my theory on one or two points, rightly I am afraid".
Eshag was interested in applying his knowledge to the development of the Third-World nations. In 1953 he joined the United Nation as an Economic Affairs Officer in the UN Secretariat. He stayed in New York for nine years and traveled to Ethiopia and Congo (modern Zaire). In 1960 the UN Secretry-General Dag Hammarskjold asked him to travel to Kinshasa in Congo as UN's chief economist. Eshag prepared a report in which he brutally attacked the Belgian destruction of this country's infrastructure. When Hammarskjold asked that he tone down his report the Assyrian economist refused and left the UN. Eshag had already expressed his views in resenting the extent of American interference with the Secretariat's autonomy.
In 1962 Eshag returned to England, and under Sir Maurice Brown joined both Wadham College and the Economics and Statistics in Oxford University. While teaching at Oxford he continued his work for the UN and extensively published studies of the problems in the "less-developed countries."
In 1983 Eshag published Fiscal and Monetary Policies and Problems Developing Countries, translated in several languages including Chinese. His other published work is entitled Present System of Trade and Payments versus Full Employment and Welfare State. In both publications Dr. Eshag's Keynesian approach to economics and monetary analysis are well illustrated. He adamantly protested his colleagues' microeconomics and mathematical criticisms of his views. He agreed with his friend, Michael Kalecki's socialist view, sometimes more so than those of Keynes. One such victim of Eshag's brutal attacks remarked to Eshaq after a meeting: "The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold." Yet Eshag taught his students well to organize their own thoughts, and never indoctrinated them his own ideas.
Eshag believed that the postwar economic theory neglected a fair distribution of income. Using little or no Marxist analysis he advocated a socialist approach to policymaking. He expressed dismay about the direction taken by New Labor Party and the privatization of the London Underground.
A visiting professor in Buenos Aires, Canberra and Beijing, Eshag's field work took him to the Indian sub-continent, Thailand, and the Philippines. He also served as a consultant to various banks in Iran.
An unrepentant Keynesian socialist of many girlfriends, Eshag finally settled down and married a fellow economist, Linda Lewis, and lived in the north Oxford home until his death. Dr. Eshag's manner was described as aggressive, kind and caring. His hospitality in Wadham was notable for the Assyrian cuisine and the caviar he served amid his fine Persian rugs. He also composed music to be sung in Assyrian. He was successful in raising money from the Iranian royal family to endow a new library in the college. He had named his home in Oxford after his birthplace, Urmi.
Eshag retained his language of Assyrian along with Persian, Turkish, Russian, Armenian and French. Professor Eprime Eshaq died at age 80 in Oxford on November 24, 1998. The last words of the greatest Assyrian political economist, hours before his death of cancer, were in Farsi: "Ya Hagh", meaning "Oh, Goodness, "Oh God" or "Oh, Truth".
The Staff of ZENDA thank the family of Professor Eshag in England and the U.S. and Lucrece De Matran, an Assyrian fellow at Oxford, for providing the necessary information for the compilation of this article.
For further reading:
GOOD MORNING BET-NAHRAIN
CHALDEAN PATRIARCH TO VISIT VATICAN IN APRIL
(ZNAF: Baghdad) Saddam Hussein will be sending an Islamic-Christian delegation to the Vatican in mid-April to thank Pope John Paul II for his support for the sanctions-hit country. This delegation was previously scheduled to travel in early March. The delegation will be led by Chaldean patriarch Raphael I Bidawid and will include two Moslem clerics and a high-ranking foreign ministry official.
Last month Mar Bidawid commented that "This visit reflects the appreciation of the Iraqi state for
Pope John Paul II. His holiness always calls for an end to injustice towards the people of the world, and especially the Iraqi people." The pope has consistently spoken out against embargoes, which
Iraq has been under since its 1990 invasion of Kuwait and branded the US-British missile strikes on Iraq in December as an "aggression." The pope wants to visit Ur, which, according to the Bible, was Abraham's homeland.
Last June, the Vatican sent papal envoy Cardinal Roger Etchegaray at the head of a delegation to take part in a Christian congress in Baghdad.
SNODAL SESSION OF SYRIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN DAMASCUS
Snodal Session at Saydnaya
Reprinted from an article by Syrian Orthodox Resources
(ZNSO: Damascus) On 11 March, His Holiness Patriarch Mor Ignatius Zakka I, Iwas, summoned their Eminencies the Metropolitans of Syria and Lebanon to a meeting at St. Ephrem Monastery, Saydnaya for Synodal session. The session was attended by Mor Athansius Aphrem Barsoum, Metropolitan of Beirut and Zahle, Mor Gregorios Yohanna Ibrahim, Metropolitan of Aleppo, Mor Theophilus George Saliba, Metropolitan of Mount Lebanon, and Mor Ostatheos Matta Rohom, Metropolitan of Jazirah and Euphrates who attended in their capacity as members of the Central and Preparatory Committee for the celebrations of the Millennial Jubilee of the Lord's nativity in flesh and the Universal Syrian Orthodox Convention. The 7th General Assembly of the Middle East Council of Churches in Lebanon, April 27-30, 1999, the eight hundredth anniversary of the passing away of Patriarch Mor Michael the Great, the celebrations of the 2nd millennium jubilee and a congratulatory message to president Hafez Al-Asad on the occasion of taking the Constitutional Oath were discussed at the Synodal session.
HISTORY TEACHERS DISCUSS GILGAMESH AT UC BERKELEY
Reprinted from Middle Eastern Studies Newsletter, University of California at Berkeley
(ZNDA: Berkeley) Last summers ORIAS History Through Literature workshop brought forty middle school teachers together with University of California, Berkeley's lecturers to explore ways to bring ancient and medieval history to life in the middle school classroom through the stories of epic heroes and villains. Not surprisingly, the topic turned out to be a lot of fun and full of rich possibilities for the English/Social Studies core classroom.
Edan Dekel, a comparative epic scholar from UCB's Classics Department, led the first session on January
9th, with an introductory talk on the cultural function of heroic legend as the act of accumulating and
transmitting cultural knowledge and interpreting the past through the eyes of the present. Dekel also
introduced the class to Joseph Campbell's model of the monomyth and suggested ways of helping
students realize how much they already know about the basic elements of heroic stories.
The February 6th class focused on the Mesopotamian hero-king Gilgamesh. John Hayes from UCB's
Near Eastern Studies Department introduced the class to the Mesopotamian culture that produced
Gilgamesh. His colleague, Jenni Ross, discussed the ancient story of the king whose education in the
kingship and what it means to be human seemed remarkably contemporary.
For further information contact Michele Delattre of the Office of Resources for International and Area Studies at 510-643-0868 (firstname.lastname@example.org). See this week's ASSYRIAN SURFING POSTS.
"From all my soul I congratulate you and with the coming of the year 6749 wish you a KHA B-NISSAN.!! I also wish you happiness, health, peace in your homes and all the best. With best wishes from the Assyrians of Tatarstan and ársen SÁvvÁ."
Rustem A. Gainutdinov
In 6749, our efforts will be stronger as our inspiration can come only from our faith that right must ultimately prevail. May the Lord bless all of you and our mother, Assyria."
Brikha Kha b'Neesan
Brikha Arba b'Neesan-Etha Raba
Next year in Assyria"
Dr George Habash
I hope we Assyrians are above this. When the prime minister of the UK first took office, he was asked 'how do you feel now?' He replied 'I am honoured and humbled'. How many of our Assyrian leaders in our organisations would say humbled!!. I am sure very few, if any. It is true that power corrupts some individuals. Reading Zenda, the last few months, I have some points to make:
1) Recently very important articles have been published from Detroit by Mr Ghassan Hanna. In these articles Mr Hanna tells the truth - referring to the Chaldeans as Assyrians. Should not we Assyrians bury the hatchet and learn our lesson and acknowledge the fact that we are one nation, and welcome our Chaldean brothers and sisters back to the fold. In so doing, people like Mr Hanna can stand shoulder high and take his position of a leading role in the political arena for some serious work. We should stop nit-picking and bickering over this issue which only leads to useless divisions and sub-divisions amongst ourselves.
2) I was very pleased to read about the Assyrian gathering in Tehran (Iran). My congradulations to all those who worked hard to organise such an eventin Iran. It was very sad to read later on, other articles attacking it. It is good to put forward ideas for constructive debate, but to critiscise just for the hell of it, is not on.
3) I enjoyed reading the article by Dr George Habash (UK) especially 'what is our identity', very interesting. I would like to comment on the fact that 'shalom' is recognised throughout the world. This word was and still is used by the Jewish people long before the state of Israel was created in 1948. Judaism did not wait the creators of Israel before telling the world 'Shalom', so why do we have to wait until 'we gather in northern Mesopotamia, declare a nation and tell the world that Jesus Christ used the word shlomo/shlama not shalom? The world knows Jesus Christ as the first teacher of Christianity, and our ancestors embraced Christianity for many reasons, one of which was the fact that he spoke our language, Jesus was not Roman or Greek! Our ancestors knew exactly what he was saying. Why then look for an identity. I was a Christian when I was in Iraq and still I am a Christian while residing in the UK. Why wait to go to northern Mesopotamia to tell the world shlomo/shlama. I will tell it to the world from the UK and all the christians (wherever they may be) to shout in one voice, Shlomo/Shlama is our identity. We are all christians from the middle East, the birth place of Christianity. Pure christianity today can be found in remote villages and isolated communities far from the corruption and paganism. Recently I attended a joint church service held by 5 churches in the UK. It was encouraging to see the different Christian denominations under one roof, despite the fact that some parishioners looked apprehensive. During tea and cakes in the church hall, a priest asked me where I came from, I replied. 'a Christian from the middle east'. In a surprised tone he said 'you people are genuine Christians, we in the west are the institutionalised Christians and hence damaged it' I just looked at him and replied 'you said it, not me'. I am sure as Christians from the east, if we hang on to our roots, some day we will stand united and shout in one voice shlomo/shlama throughout the planet to be our identity.
4) Finally a big thank you and wish you all at Zenda and your readers a very happy Easter. To me Zenda is an excellent meeting place for the good, the bad and the ugly. Please keep the good work up in the hope that the true Christian spirit will prevail and shine to encourage the bad and the ugly to see the light of our lord Jesus Christ and follow the right path through the narrow passage way to bet-Nahrain."
Dr. Awshalim Lazar Khammo
Leeds, United Kingdom
INVITATION TO COMMEMORATE THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
APRIL 24, 1999
Ladies and Gentlemen, Dear friends,
SHLAMA - SHLOMO - BAREV
On behalf of the Central Council of Armenians in Germany (ZAD) presiding over the 24th April Organisation Committee named "Permanent Conference for the Understanding among Nations, Human Rights and Democracy" and in the name of the conference members herewith I'd like to invite you to participate in the festivities and events on occasion of the above traditional commemoration day.
As you may see from the program, this year's event is marked in a special way by the conviction that the only adequate and most powerful response to genocide and holocaust as a crime against humankind in its
Active unity of all mankind in the spirit of brotherhood being dedicated to vital commemoration and awareness of the historical and actual truth as well as being committed to joint, courageous and inspired acting for the prevention of these infernos.
This holds especially true for all those nations who have fallen victim to genocides and/or even continue to do so still today.
With this in mind the Central Council of Armenians in Germany welcomes the active participation also of nations others than the Armenian one.
We'd appreciate your personal attendance or if impossible any such contribution of yours as memos, declarations, or greeting addresses which we'll be honoured to read before the audience.
Assyrian Democratic Representative
DAY OF COMMEMORATION OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
SATURDAY, APRIL 24, 1999
Program of the central event in Bonn, Germany
10:30 a.m. WREATH LAYING AT THE HOLOCAUST MONUMENT
Key addresses by: Archbishop Karekin Bekdjian,
Primate of the Armenian-Apostolic Church
Chief Rabbi N.N. of the Chief Rabbinate N.N. in North Rhine-Westphalia, FRG
Representative of the Ancient Assyrian Church of the East
Representative of the Syrian Orthodox Church
11:00 - 12:00 a.m. ARMENIAN REQUIEM
by Archbishop Karekin Bekdjian, Primate of the Armenian-Apostolic Church,
Where: Muensterkirche, Muensterplatz, Bonn-Altstadt
0:30 - 2:00 p.m. PROTEST DEMONSTRATION
in front of the Turkish embassy,
Where: Bonn-Mehlem, Gernotstr.
2:30 - 5:00 p.m. CONFERENCE FOR THE UNDERSTANDING AMONG NATIONS, HUMAN
RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY
Where: Hall of the Protestant Parish, Kurfuerstenstr. 20a, Bonn
1. 'THE GENOCIDE COMMITTED BY THE TURKS AGAINST ARMENIANS'
Dr. Gerayr Koutcharyan, Central of Armenians in Germany, ZAD
2. 'THE GENOCIDE COMMITTED BY THE TURKS AGAINST GREEKS'
Mr. Theodoritis, Association of Greek Communities in the Federal
Republic of Germany, OEK (representing also the Pontos-Greeks)
3. THE GENOCIDE COMMITTED BY THE TURKS AND KURDS AGAINST
4. 'THE ANNIHILATION OF THE KURDS IS STILL AVOIDABLE'
Mr. Mehmet Tanriverdi, president of the Kurdish community in Germany
FOLLOWING: PANEL DISCUSSION
"RECOGNISING THE TRUTH - WAYS TO HEALING THE WOUNDS"
Panelists: the above speakers and invited German politicians
Moderator: A. Schmidt, European Forum for Freedom in Education,
European Forum for Freedom in Education
Central Council of Armenians in Germany, ZAD
Association of Greek Communities in the Federal Republic of Germany, OEK
Central Organisation of the Assyrian Organisations in the Federal Republic of Germany, ZAVD
Assyrian Democratic Organisation, ADO
Associations of Cypriots in Germany
Kurdish Community in Germany
Association of Opponents to Genocide
MESSAGE IN THE BOTTLE
He doesn't mind being called Bani Banana, Beefa Brother or even Armando. But his real name is Bani Pera. The 27-year-old Assyrian "Bebeto" lives in Sydney, listens to Ricky Martin, Celin Dion and "most Latin music." Bani dreams that one day he'll be stuck on a deserted island with Samantha Fox and eat kabobs and kiwi. Bani also thinks that marriage is like watermelon. Oooooookay! Banana, Kiwi, and Watermelon! Yup...it's got Freud written all over it. All you Assyrian "Foxes" out there interested to kick some cyberballs with our Assyrian sports enthusiast Bani can be challenged at: email@example.com.
ASSYRIAN SURFING POSTS
Links to Other Assyrian Websites
Gilgamesh the Hero: Lesson Plans for Grades 6 & 7
PUMP UP THE VOLUME
BACK TO THE FUTURE
Sargon of Akkad was the first Mesopotamian ruler to have a permanent professional army. He writes that 5400 soldiers ate their meals in his presence. He often destroyed the walls of the city-states he conquered to deprive the rebels of strongholds. By cleverly using religion to obtain formal recognition for himself as the supreme ruler of the land he was able, for the first time, to unite the Mesopotamian city-states.
Civilization Before Greece & Rome, Saggs
Mar Yaballaha III, the Assyrian Patriarch, sends Bar Sauma to visit the Pope in Vatican. The delegation consisted of Bar Sauma, a bishop of the Church, and three others. With this visitation the Mongol ruler in the East, King Arghon, began a formal relationship with the western leaders in Europe.
The History of Yaballaha III, Montgomery
THE ASSYRIAN WHO WILL RULE THE WORLD
The Prologue from "The Power to Make War" by Zane C. Hodges
He will be an Assyrian by race. He will live in the Middle East. He has not deserted the Bedouin lifestyle into which he was born. But he has deserted the religion of his ancestors. He is not a Muslim.
Instead, he worships a new god unknown to his forefathers. And because he has sold himself to this god, he will receive power to make war. His god will give this to him, along with kingly authority over all mankind.
His first conquests will take place in Egypt and the Middle East. Next he will become the ruler of the New Roman Empire. After this, he will have the whole world at his feet. No nation will be able to make war with him.
At a crisis point in his career the King is attacked and receives a mortal wound. He recovers miraculously. After his recovery his personal capacities are greatly increased. He is able to identify himself as a reincarnated Roman emperor of long ago. The world worships him as a man who has reached his full potential and is now the god whom all men can hope to be if they follow his path.
The King makes war with those who oppose him. His ambition leads him into the final war of this age -- Armageddon. His career is the subject of many ancient prophecies.
This book tells his story.
THIS WEEK IN HISTORY
April 10, 1964: In a gathering of the Assyrian representatives from around the world the Assyrian Universal Alliance is established in the French city of Po.
Among the many cultural and education projects undertaken by the Assyrian Aid Society in northern Iraq, the most impressive and promising is the establishment of the many Assyrian schools where thousands of students- grades one through seven- are taught their daily studies in Assyrian. Several hundred Assyrian teachers are currently involved in the instruction of these students. In 1994 a few men and women became involved in the difficult task of training these future teachers, one of whom was Yonan Hozaya.
Mr. Hozaya, born in 1956, is a graduate of the Baghdad University with a degree in engineering. An active member of the Assyrian Democratic Movement in northern Iraq, he is an accomplished writer, poet, trainers' trainer, and co-author of the Arabic-Assyrian dictionary, Bahra. In 1994 he and his partner, Andrious Youkhana, began the translation of the school texts and instructional material from Arabic to Assyrian. Meanwhile, they began their collaboration on creating a small pocket dictionary to aid the Assyrian instructors and parents in their everyday challenge to translate Arabic word to modern Assyrian.
In a recent interview for the Assyrian Aid Society's newsletter, The Tree of Life (Vol 3, #1), Mr. Hozaya explains the difficulty of preparing this dictionary "in assigning words to technical terms. For Example, in Arabic we find different words used in physics for weight, mass, energy, and force. In Assyrian we use all these words interchangeably. Hence, when we have to translate the equation 'force equals mass times acceleration' we confront a problem of assigning words used interchangeably to define specific scientific terms...We needed to complete the textbooks for the students to proceed with their education as well as to create the precedent of officially sanctioned education in our Assyrian language."
Today over three thousand Assyrian students in northern Iraq are taught the basic courses in language, mathematics, and sciences in modern Assyrian language thanks to such devoted individuals as Yonan Hozaya. The remarkable accomplishments of Mr. Hozaya and his colleagues, despite the overwhelming obstacles facing the Assyrian population in northern Iraq, is exemplary. To support such education projects in northern Iraq or to order a copy of Bahra Dictionary contact your local Assyrian Aid Society office. See THE WATERFRONT.
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
|Feb 6 - May 5||
TREASURES FROM THE ROYAL TOMBS AT UR
A presentation of 140 artifacts excavated in the 1920's by Sir Leonard Woolley at the 5000-year-old Sumerian site.
THE ASSYRIAN EXPERIENCE
An Exhibit of Sources for the Study of the Assyrians in the past 200 years
HISTORY, PEOPLE, AND POLITICS OF IRAQ
The Center for Arab and Islamic Studies at Villanova University in
NEESAN BREAKFAST/BRUNCH AT BETA
Assyrian American Association of San Jose
ANNUAL SCHOLARSHIP & GRADUATION DINNER PARTY
Assyrian Students Association of California State University, Stanislaus
All proceeds from this evening's party go to the Narsai David Scholarship
For ticket information: Elki Issa at (209) 667-3507 Day
AN AANYA LECTURE EVENT
AANYA Lecture Series presents: "The Assyrian Diet: Good or Bad?"
HUMAN RACE FOR THE ASSYRIAN AID SOCIETY
A Fundraising Event Help Assyrians in North of Iraq
MEMORIAL OF ST. EPHREM
Divine Liturgy in the Eastern Assyrian Rite (Chaldean and Malabarese)
New Releases of Books,Artwork, CD's, & Magazines
350 Berkeley Park Boulevard
Berkeley CA 94707
| "Power to Make War"
|A Book by Zane C. Hodges
$7.95 Trade Paperback
(214) 821-5357 or 1-888-822-5357
MEETINGS & CLASSES
1031 McHenry Ave. Suit # 18
|Conducted in Assyrian
Provided by Nineveh Online
Call (209) 578-5511
||Assyrian American Assoc of San Jose
20000 Almaden Road
San Jose, California
|Young Adult Assyrians in the SF Bay Area are invited to join
235/237 Sussex St.
|The basics of computer use from fiirst time users to more advanced
Contact 9344 4791 for detail
Cycles & Observances of the Middle Eastern Christian & Assyrian Liturgical Calendars
ACE, CCC, MSO
AAC = Ancient Assyrian Church of the East
ACE = Assyrian Church of the East
CCC = Chaldean Catholic Church
COP = Coptic Church
MCC= Maronite Catholic Church
MSO = Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church
SCC = Syrian Catholic Church of Antioch
SKC = Syrian Knanaya Church
SOC = Syrian Orthodox Church
WELCOME TO ZENDA
This Week's Contributors:
in alphabetical order
|Philimon Darmo||Australia||The Lighthouse|
|Caroline Nasseri||California||The Lighthouse|
|Wilbert Odisho||California||Calendar of Events|
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ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
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ZNNY: New York Times
ZNPR: Palestinian Review
ZNQA (Qala Atouraya- Moscow)
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ZNSH (Shotapouta Newsletter)
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ZNSO (Syrian Orthodox News "SOCNews")
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ZNUS (US News & World Report)
ZNCW: Catholic World News