Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Neesan 28, 6746                   Volume III                       Issue 11            April 28, 1997

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       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                      T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A
The Lighthouse...................... The Karum of Ancient Assyria
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain............ Last Assyrian Prisoner Released
                                            Saddam Turns 60
Surfs Up............................ "Zowaa is not the savior"
Surfers Corner...................... Shamasha Yonan's Fund
                                            Virus Alert
News Digest......................... International Workshop on Aramaic
                                            Nineveh Online's Seminar in Modesto
 Ziggurat............................ Gilgamesh? (French)
Calendar of Events.................. No New Entry
Entracte............................ Kalusulagha Picnic in San Jose
Intelligentsia...................... Classes and Seminars
Assyrian Surfing Posts.............. Interesting Readings on the Net
Pump up the Volume.................. Ship & Boat
Back to the Future.................. Tiglath-Pilaser III & the Crusades
Literatus........................... Of Ancient Assyrian Laws
This Week in History................ Opening of Assyrian Hall at Louvre
Bravo............................... Moradkhan's Classes in Los Angeles
The Directory....................... News Sources
Bshena.............................. Harvard, Chicago, & Los Angeles
Salute.............................. Albert, Rita, and Arbil

                  THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E

                        THE KARUM OF ANCIENT ASSYRIA

One of the best-known systems for organizing international trade in the
ancient world is that of the Assyrian commercial enclaves in Asia Minor
(modern Turkey) during the 20th and 19th centuries BC. In many Mesopotamian
cities (mdinate d'Bet-Nahrin) there was a port area or suburb outside the
walls which functioned as a center for commercial activity.  This zone, the
equivalent of an emporion or a medieval portus, called a Karum, was
organized like a marketplace.  Almost immediately after winning their
independence from the monarchs of the Thirst Dynasty of Ur in southern
Mesopotamia (lower region of today's Iraq) the Assyrians began to penetrate
Asia Minor.  In the beginning they reused seals dedicated to the last king
of Ur.  Long trips were made on donkeybacks via several routes, bringing
cloth and tin from the east to trade for metals from the west.  For
instance, in the suburbs of the ancient city of Kanesh at the beginning of
the second millennium (2000 BC), there was an Assyrian enclave inhabited by
businessmen who, over several generations, grew rich by buying and selling,
forming partnerships and lending or investing money.  These were called
"tamkaru" and acted as intermediaries between the Karum of Ashur and the
prince of Kanesh, who ruled over a region rich in copper.  Assyria obtained
gold, silver, and copper from Asia Minor and tin from Iran.

The Karum was situated at the foot of a city and included houses and
residential districts, not only for Assyrian merchants but also for natives
and other foreign traders. Such a commercial house (bet Karum) comprised of
several firms or branches (betum) controlled by powerful merchant families.
At first a male Assyrian population would settle in such a colony as
Kanesh, made up of merchants and their employees, whose families continued
to live in Assyria.  Gradually itinerant traders and commercial agents
began buying land in the area, all bringing their families, so that the
commercial enclave became a genuine colony.  A typical businessman with his
archive and agents in Ashur would receive commission in return for buying
and investing for him.  Such a tamkarum of high social rank, who travels
constantly and from a trade colony controls the caravans and activities of
his many agents.

The Assyrian colonists who settled in Kanesh formed a kind of family
enterprise, passed on from father to son and dependent on the Karum in
Ashur.  Ashur supplied the products, lent the money and invested large sums
in return for interest.  The thousands of written tablets discovered in
Kanesh support the notion of a corporate and hierarchical organization of
highly specialized traders.  The Assyrian merchants in Kanesh were not
traders in the sense of people who earn their living from the profits
obtained by buying and selling, thanks to the price differential in those
transactions, but had merchant status, by virtue of birth or by royal
appointment.  Their incomes were derived from commission or interest.  The
extraction of copper went on in accordance with equivalencies, and prices
were fixed in advance according to those equivalencies.

In short, this was treaty trade, in which the public authorities guarantee
all the operations and the merchants are therefore immune from risk.  The
Assyrian trader restricted himself to stimulating copper extraction by the
natives through loans and investments , paying future suppliers in advance.
 Although the tamkarum is an independent agent, the whole operation is a
public service and an integral part of state trade.

The new documentation shows that there were orders to 'sell at any price',
which means that there is risk, there is weighing up of costs, margins of
gain and profits.  Various allusions to the poor demand for tin, to a fall
in prices, to emergency situations at certain times of the year, to the
fluctuation of prices and to changes in supply and demand lend credence to
the hypothesis of a quite well developed market trade.  Silver did indeed
function as money, that is to say, as an indirect medium of exchange and it
is clear that the merchants of a colony (i.e. Kanesh) were not state

The Assyrians did not exercise political control over the local princes,
who did not belong to the Assyrian empire.  But they controlled the
economic destinies of the area in their time.  Although they were quartered
in the commercial quarters of each city, they entered into numerous
relationships with the natives, including marriage.
Major Portions Adopted from "The Phoenicians & the West" by Maria Eugenia
     G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I  N


(ZNDA: Germany)  The officials at the Assyrian Democratic Organization
(Mtakasta) desk in Europe have informed ZENDA that the last of the three
Assyrian prisoners kept in custody since 1996 in the Turkish prisons was
recently released.  Melek Akyol was released on bail pending a possible
trial in the future.  Mtakasta officials commented that since no serious
evidence against Mr. Akyol are extant there remains little chance of such a
trial.  Earlier, Misters Gebro Tokgoez and Adnan Kesenci, also arrested on
charges of insurgency and aiding the enemies of the state namely the
Kurdish terrorists in Turkey, were released for lack of convincing evidence.

                     SADDAM CELEBRATES 60TH BIRTHDAY

(ZNRU: Baghdad) Iraq is having a lavish party for President Saddam
Hussein's 60th birthday, including a grand parade today in his hometown,
Tikrit. Celebrations marking Saddam's birthday were already taking place
throughout the country. The festivities, they said, ranged from
exhibitions, rallies and speeches to theatrical performances.  The
festivities will climax Monday with a parade in Tikrit, 106 miles north of
Baghdad, where the president usually marks his birthday by receiving groups
of singing and dancing children from across the country. Baath party
leaders are giving medals to party members who have spent more than 25
years in the party's service.

In power since 1979, Saddam maintains a solid hold on Iraq despite the 1991
Gulf War over Kuwait and the suffering caused by U.N. trade sanctions
imposed after the 1990 invasion of the Gulf Arab state. Opposition to his
rule is still in disarray and rebel Kurds, who control a large strip of
Iraqi Kurdistan, are now more of a burden to their Western protectors than
to the government in Baghdad. The government portrays its oil-for-food deal
with the United Nations, allowing sales worth $2 billion in six months,
as a victory.
It has not given up its defiance of the United States and allies whose
planes patrol two no-fly zones, one in the north and the second in the
south of the country. The Iraqi government sent helicopters Tuesday into
the West's no-fly zone in southern Iraq to pick up its Muslim pilgrims on
their way home from Mecca, Saidi Arabia.

Qadissiya said as part of the birthday celebrations several murals and
portraits of the Iraqi leader would be unveiled and poetry festivals held
in Baghdad and the provinces.  Art exhibitions, focused on Arabic
calligraphy, will be part of the celebrations. In Basra, Iraqi journalists
will organize a symposium on the history of journalism in Iraq. Tribal
leaders on the way from Baghdad to Tikrit will set up marquees and offer
free food, tea and coffee.  "The Iraqis will renew their pledge of loyalty
to his Excellency President Saddam Hussein ... under whose leadership
eternal and courageous feats were realized in the battles of glory and
honor in defense of Iraq and the Arab nation," said Qadissiya. The
government has set up a supreme committee with 12 branches to supervise the
nationwide celebrations.
                      S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !
"whats this thing about teach urself assyrian...  ?????  is it free. if
yes, can u send me a copy.  and where can i get a list of all members of
zenda. thanks.  zenda is great. can u put more history stuff in it ??? they
are a good read.  thanks again."

Elvin Sarkis

[Teach Yourself Assyrian: Version 1.1 For Windows is a software program
that teaches modern Assyrian language and is distributed on a Compact Disk.
 For more information please contact Shamasha Namato at lnamato@ibm.net .
We hope that you enjoyed this week's THE LIGHTHOUSE article on the history
of the Assyrian trade and economy. It is interesting to note that the
origins of Assyrian self-governance and political autonomy rested on the
economic wealth of the inhabitants of northern Mesopotamia.  Such wealth
was in turn used in financing a strong army to defend the citizens of
Ashur, Erbil, and Nineveh. ]

"These are my comments regarding Mr. Francis Sarguis' remarks in March 31,
1997 issue of Zenda responding to my Call to Action.  I thank Mr. Sarguis
for sharing his insights and his valuable information with the Assyrian
public, even though his letter did not address the main point of my call.
I tried to convey my expectation of a national Assyrian political
organization in this country, and specifically in the case of ZOWAA which
is a homeland-based political movement championing a national cause
deserving our full support.  I hope that my call to action generates
meaningful dialogue, as it is time for figures like Dr. Malik to face the
scrutiny of our nation.

I am passing judgement on Dr. Malik not as a person, but as a public
Assyrian official.  Dr. Malik the person is a good friend of mine, but Dr.
Malik the Representative of ZOWAA in the U.S. has assumed the crucial role
of representing our national movement in our homeland and is in charge of
developing a solid, effective, and resourceful arm for ZOWAA in this
country.  Mr. Sarguis requested that I see the glass half full, but
frankly, the glass holds but a few drops of water in it.  I see a ZOWAA
thoroughly neglected by Dr. Malik.  Instead, Dr. Malik has elected to
preoccupy himself with micro-managing the Assyrian Aid Society, a
non-political, humanitarian aid organization.  I find it highly
irresponsible, inappropriate and a conflict of interest for a high level
politician to have at the same time an executive position in a
non-political humanitarian aid organization.  I seriously question Dr.
Malik's judgement on this matter.

If there has been a sustained effort to raise funds in this country for use
in our homeland, the credit goes to Mr. Yaqoub Yosep, whose coming to this
country mobilized the Assyrian communities to establish such an effort.  As
Mr. Sarguis points out Dr. Malik was ZOWAA's representative in this country
for a number of years prior to the coming of Mr. Yosep, but to my knowledge
no such effort existed during those years.

Dr. Malik's involvement with ZOWAA prior to the Liberation of North Iraq by
the Allies is not the subject of my analysis.  Before the liberation ZOWAA
was an obscure, underground organization.  ZOWAA's national struggle, due
to the circumstances in Iraq, was mainly kept secret and therefore unknown
to the Assyrians in the United States.  Under those conditions and with the
limited information that could be made available, convincing the Assyrians
in the United States that ZOWAA in our homeland was a national movement
worthy of our support was a very tough sell indeed.

But Dr. Malik's performance since the liberation of  North Iraq is the
subject of my analysis.  It was then that the world witnessed ZOWAA's
spectacular rise in Liberated Bet-Nahrain.  It was then that the names of
ZOWAA's educated, capable leadership who so quickly and effectively
mobilized our people in the North became household names.  This proved to
all of us that ZOWAA is indeed a national Assyrian political movement
worthy of our support.

My call to action was intended to prompt concerned Assyrians into demanding
immediate changes.  We can not afford ZOWAA to represent another one of
those lost - and perhaps one of the last - opportunities in the history of
the Assyrian nation, which will happen if ZOWAA does not receive solid
backing from the Assyrians in the United States.  To develop such support,
we need ZOWAA to come forward and declare the qualifications and
responsibilities of its representative in this country.  We need ZOWAA's
agenda in this country to be announced publicly.  We need ZOWAA's
leadership in this country to establish effective communication channels
with the Assyrian public, to articulate ZOWAA's visions and expectations,
and to report regularly on the progress of its undertakings.  We need a
ZOWAA in this country that keeps us abreast of the developments in our
homeland.  We need a ZOWAA here that regularly holds classes, workshops,
and seminars to educate us about our homeland and the importance of
supporting a national Assyrian political movement.  And we need a ZOWAA in
the US that trains homegrown Assyrian politicians.

These, I believe are the responsibilities of Dr. Lincoln Malik.  Five years
have passed since the liberation of North Iraq; a long enough time to
enable a worthwhile analysis of ZOWAA's performance in the US, and to pass
judgement on Dr. Lincoln Malik at its helm.  Dr. Malik, a career politician
capable of delivering all of the above, has failed to accomplish any one of
them.  Mr. Sarguis' statement regarding the amount of "untold hours"
dedicated by Dr. Malik is irrelevant.  It is performance that matters, not
the number of hours spent.  I can spend untold hours at my job, but if I
fail to perform I still will lose it.

The question that we Assyrians have to ask ourselves is this:  Is ZOWAA in
this country Dr. Malik's personal property, a tool for him to achieve his
own ambitions and personal agenda?  Or are we going to make sure that ZOWAA
in the U.S. is truly a democratic national political movement that strives
to derive its power and legitimacy from the Assyrian people?"

Ramin Daniels
San Jose, CA


"Your most recent issue (21 April 1997) had several items of interest. If
you will permit, I would like to comment briefly on three of them. First, a
Mr. Frederick Aprim of San Jose is disillusioned because he "thought that
Zenda was the only Assyrian independent voice we had". But based on the
rest of his comments, it appears that he confuses "independence" with
"anarchy". I for one appreciate your effort to preserve civility.
Name-calling is a good release for some, but why should you provide a
megaphone for it? Gil Chamaki tries to exercise similar reasonable
restraint <assyrianlink>. I salute both Zenda and <assyrianlink>, not
because they are perfect, but make a reasonable effort. Second, Chicagoan
Paul D.Newey has found some faults in the discussion about Assyrians in a
book by Mr. Richard Lindberg.  He wants to remedy this by referring Linderg
"to some of our scholars at the JAAS to give him a better perspective on
our civilization and culture."  I have met Mr. Newey, and I have
considerable respect for him. He is a prominent member of the Illinois Bar
who recently honored him for his many years of upstanding legal service.
But I must respectfully correct a point.  JAAS publishes articles by
scholars. However, the efforts of the JAAS editorial team are mostly
exerted in the production of the Journal, and not in research on our
civilization and culture.  We hope that some of our previously-published
articles address the concerns raised by Mr. Newey.  If they do not, then
hopefully some of our future articles may do so.

Third, you reprinted an article from the Los Angeles Times (February 26,
1997 issue), centering on the Assyrian American Association of Southern
California, and on its  President, Madlen Zango. One cannot adequately
quantify the value of such an article.  The Los Angeles Times has the
second largest daily circulation in the nation. In terms of population
numbers, the Assyrians of southern California are an inconsequential
factor, totally dwarfed by the Jews, the Armenians, the Koreans, the
Mexicans, and all others. Since groups far larger than ours are routinely
ignored by the Times, frankly it is quite a coup for Ms Zango and the AAASC
to have pulled this off. I have recently met Ms Zango. She and her board
appear determined to make important inroads on behalf of our people. This
means not only improved communication amongst ourselves, but more outreach
to the community.  This article was  a marvelous step in that direction.

Francis Sarguis
Santa Barbara, California

[Mr. Sarguis is an Editor of the Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society.]


"In the mid seventies, Dr. Sargon Dadeeshoo wrote,in an editorial published
in the Assyrian Star, and I am quoting from memory, so it may not be word
for word, 'When solving a problem one must divide it and solve the
solvable, one problem of the Assyrian Nation has been solved by the birth
of AUA' Dr. Dadeeshoo went on to say, 'We must set an example for our
coming generations by uniting behind AUA'. Well, the rest is history. I do
not bring this as an example to defame Dr. Dadeeshoo, on the contrary, as
he has devoted much of his time serving our nation, with all the mistakes
and accomplishments that make him human. I mention it as an example of how
fast we become 100% loyal, dedicated, our motto turning to 'My
organization, party, etc. is the only hope, the only true path to
accomplish the goals (Even if the goals are not clear).'

The second policy we implant in our minds is 'Anyone criticizing the
organization I belong to or its leader or in some cases leaders, that
person must be an agent, or an enemy'. We become so emotional, that we
blind ourselves to the facts, placing that organization above all,
including in some cases above the Assyrian Nation. That is exactly how all
the political parties of the ME think and it seems that we have been
politically assimilated, without realizing it. AUA at the peak of its power
fell into this trap, as its members became blinded by these emotions, and
history is repeating itself when it comes to ZOWAA. Perhaps one reason is,
we are excellent at re-starting from bottom of the ladder, even though in
our fall from the 8th or ninth step we land on the second step.  Our friend
Lena Mushell, uses the words forever, the only hope, etc. in describing
ZOWAA, the question is would she say that on that occassion if she was the
representative of AUA or BNDP to name a few examples.

"Is ZOWAA that?" Personally I wish it was, as we all are hoping for a
Savior to deliver us from our miserable status that we have reached. But
the fact remains, ZOWAA is not the savior nor can it be without bringing
changes in its policies, behavior, actions and reactions, and most
important, to realize that it is not the Assyrian Nation, as stated in
Bahra (I admit I heard this so I can stand corrected) but a small part of
the Assyrian Nation. An educated Assyrian once said, admittedly quoting
others 'Ten wise enemies are better than one foolish more stupid friend'.
Unfortunately this policy is seldom practiced by those who assume the
leadership of our organizations, therefore collecting foolish friends
around them. Usually, symptoms appear long before the disease sinks in.
Some of the early symptoms of the ailment that caused ZOWAA to be what it
is today, rather than what it could have and should have been are:

1- ZOWAA calling the Martyrs of the Assyrian Nation as Martyrs of ZOWAA
(1991-1992). Rabee Ninos, when asked why ZOWAA is referring to the Martyrs
as Martyrs of ZOWAA, therefore dividing us by one of the few uniting
forces, our Martyrs, his reply was 'They are Martyrs of Zowaa, and we are
proud to call them exactly that' following the remark of his compatriot
that had accompanied him from the homeland which were 'They are the Martyrs
of the Assyrian Nation through ZOWAA'.

2- Denial of facts, such as receiving support from the Assyrian Political
Organizations, such as funds sent to aid ZOWAA in its struggle in the 70's
80's, funds sent by AUA and others, as well as the demonstrations,lobbying,
protests by AUA, BNDP, MTAKASTA and others when the members of ZOWAA were
arrested and consequently the leaders executed.

3- Denial of the unseen work of other organizations to secure the safety of
our people, and ZOWAA, during the turbulence of the Gulf War. Work done by
AUA, and Bet-Nahrain (Both factions) in the USA.

These symptoms, and others, had they been dealt with, rather than being
blinded by the support of the ones that mostly climbed aboard, for personal
reasons, i.e., to use their positions to retaliate against the Political
Parties they once belonged to and were terminated from earlier, today ZOWAA
would have been the powerful element within the savior of our nation, 'A
sound Leadership'. According to the report by Miss Mushell, the
representative of ZOWAA stated that ZOWAA does not take sides. Well,
calling our homeland kurdistan and siding with the Kurds to create
Kurdistan is not taking sides.? In its constitution it is written that
ZOWAA supports the cause of the Palastinians, is that not taking sides? In
its stand as far as Awyoota, by recognising the AUA political Arm when AUA
had suspended it (Right or Wrong,is not the issue), is it not taking sides?
Including in its constitution that ZOWAA is in favor of the cause of the
Palastinians, is not taking sides?  The sad part is, and its our reality
'No one will admit that his yogurt is sour', an attitude that will diminish
the flickering light of our Nation."

Nenus Younan
Ontario, Canada


"I have copies of some documents a friend of mine gave me some time ago.
They deal with modern Assyrian history and the British involvement. I would
like to mail then to Zenda in the hope that some of the material may be
used as a reference in future articles.  The gentleman that gave me these
collected reprints and copies is an Assyrian from Syria, and spoke Assyrian
with a dialect I had never heard before. I met the man several years ago in
Irvine, CA.  Have not seen him for at least 3 years. Dont know if he is
still alive as he was suffering from a heart condition.  You or some of
your scholarly readers will find some of these documents very interesting
reading.  Please email me your postal address that I might send you the
stuff.  Warmest regards."

Joseph Davida
San Diego, California

[Please send these valuable documents to ZENDA P.O. Box 20278  San Jose,
California, 95160  U.S.  We will gladly share them with our readers.]


"I am one of those who never received more than a brief excerpt of ZENDA,
Part II last week.  It included a ZIGGURAT article on the Assyrians of
Austria.  If you can, please send me the entire text.  Thanks very much.

Daniel P. Wolk


"I have received zenda II three times already, but all of them had been cut
off.  Can you please send it to me again."

Rita Pirayou
San Jose, California


"As I already told you, I haven't got the second part of last issue, so it
would be nice, if you could send it once more. Thanks again for sending me
ZENDA.  Danke fuer Eure Bemuehungen!"

Adrin Takhsh
Berlin, Germany

["ZENDA II Vol III,#9" is attached as a textfile (ZEN3_9.DOC) to this
week's issue.]

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R

ZENDA readers are invited to respond to the following request(s) by either
directly writing to the author or sending a reply to ZENDA.


The staff of ZENDA wish to thank our readers in Chicago and San Jose for
their contributions to the Shamasha Yonan's Trust Fund in Canada.  All
personal checks have been mailed on behalf of the individual contributors
and the readers of ZENDA newsletter.

                      ATTENTION:  VIRUS ALERT

A dangerous mail virus containing a Trojan Horse program is currently
circulating on the Internet.  The virus is attached to a message with the
subject "AOL4FREE.COM".  It does not hurt to read the text message but if
you "double click" on the attachment (AOL4FREE.COM) it will start the
Trojan Horse program.  The virus then deletes the entire PC hard drive.
If you receive a copy of this message delete it immediately.

                  N   E   W  S       D   I   G   E   S   T

                  Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia, Pavia

(ZNDA: Chicago)  On March 7-8, 1997, an international workshop on "Aramaic
argillary texts: toward a new corpus" was held in Pavia (Italy), organized
by Professor Frederick Mario Fales (University of Udine) and Professors
Clelia Mora and Marco Mozzati (University of Pavia). The aim of the meeting
was to evaluate the present state of knowledge on Aramaic texts on clay
tablets from the Neo-Assyrian --but also the Neo-Babylonian-- period, some
ten years after the publication of the  corpus of the material (F.M. Fales,
Aramaic Epigraphs on Clay Tablets of the Neo-Assyrian Period, Rome 1986),
and in the light of the existence of various groups of yet unpublished
tablets (from excavations or from the market) currently under study in an
number of European research institutions. A secondary theme of the workshop
was the evaluation of the seal impressions on some of the Aramaic argillary
Invited speakers were:
E. Attardo (Padua)
L. Bachelot (CNRS, Paris)
P. Bordreuil (CNRS, Paris)
F.M. Fales; D. Homas-Fredericq (Royal Museum, Brussels)
F. Joannas (CNRS, Paris)
E. Lipinski (University of Leuven)
A.R. Millard (University of Liverpool)
C. Mora; M. Padula (CNR Research Labs, Milan)
W. Roellig (University of Tuebingen).
The meeting took place in the historic halls of the University of Pavia
and in one of the outlying Colleges, and was attended by a number of
Italian Semitists, orientalists, ancient historians, as well as by students
of various Universities of northern Italy. Three sessions were held
(Morning and afternoon, March 7; Morning of March 8), with Profs. Gabba,
Carruba, Mozzati of the University of Pavia.  A.R. Millard gave an opening
outline of the Aramaic tablets on clay underscoring their contextual
information and potential: dating, archival contexts, types of epigraphs,
and the relationship with contemporary cuneiform material were analyzed.
C. Mora gave an overview of the problem of Aramaic--Neo-Hittite relations
in NW Syria and SW Anatolia, with particular regard to the case studies of
Sam'al and Til Barsip.  E. Lipinski presented the 25 Aramaic argillary
texts in the Brussels Museum collection from Ma'allanate, a site presumably
near Tell Halaf, concentrating on names, toponyms, and specific legal and
administrative formulae.
D. Homas-Fredericq gave a richly illustrated overview of the sealings
from the same corpus, with attention to dating, form and function of
cylinder and stamp imprints, as well as fingernail-marks. W. Roellig
presented -with the aid of transliterations and of a group of clay casts-
the rich Aramaic argillary evidence uncovered by the German archaeological
expedition directed by H. Kuehne at Tell Sheikh Hamad/ Dur-katlimmu,
discussing specific formulae and writing habits.
E. Attardo gave an overview of the paleography of the Aramaic argillary
texts from Assyria, comparing shapes with monumental and cursive
attestations from elsewhere: the pitfalls of paleography for dating
purposes, but also some guidelines for inner study of the development of
writing, were analyzed.  M. Padula presented a multimedia Web application
for the study of Aramaic argillary materials: the extant corpus of
inscriptions in copy, transliteration, translation, concordances, and
paleographic charts --with full cross-referential links-- was encoded for
the participants of the workshop. Chat pages on each text plus forms for
adding new materials to the
corpus were also included.
L. Bachelot discussed three sealings from one of the Aramaic tablets
discovered in the French-Italian excavations at Tell Shiyukh Fawqani
(ancient Burmarina) in Syria, which have little or no parallels in their
clear Neo-Hittite derivation, intriguing also for their late-7th century
date.  F.M. Fales gave the transliteration and translation of the main
Aramaic text from Burmarina, a 21-line pledge contract replete with complex
formulae of straight Assyrian derivation. P. Bordreuil presented a number
of triangular dockets from the collections of the Louvre, discussing the
main formulae and problematic clauses. F. Joannes gave an overview of the
Aramaic epigraphs on Neo-Babylonian clay tablets, dividing them by dated
archives and establishing their main differences on the Neo-Assyrian
material as regards function and overall cultural-linguistic impact.
The final discussion centered on various topics: policy for information
on the results of the workshop --from which the present note stems--, the
need to refine specific instruments of philological and contextual
interpretation of the material (from Assyrianisms to paleographical
techniques to the study of seal impressions), the possibilities of using
Internet and/or other electronic means for exchanging  data, and the
welcome opportunity of the workshop itself for accelerating traditional
publication of the texts. A further meeting in approx. 2 years, possibly in
Tuebingen, was generally agreed upon.


(ZNDA: Turlock) On Friday evening more than fifty members of the Assyrian
Church of the East Youth Club in Modesto, California had an opportunity to
learn more about Assyrians and the Assyrian culture in CyberSpace.  The
program was sponsored by Nineveh Online, a major organizer of the Assyrian
Community Networking Conference 97.  The presentation was prepared by Rima
Nissan, youth club vice-president and recorded on video by the Modesto
Association TV's Shimshon Warda.  It will be broadcast next Thursday on the
Local Community Channel in Turlock.  Nineveh Online Staff, Ben Talyea,
George Mikahel and Albert Gabrial, described the workings of the Internet
and responded to the technical question raised from the audience.  More of
such activities are planned in the near future.  For more information
access www.nineveh.com .

                       Z   I   G   G   U   R   A   T


La vie-sans-fin que tu recherches,
Tu ne la trouveras jamais!
Quand les dieux
Ont cree les hommes,
Ils leur ont assigne
La mort
Se reservantl'immortalite,
A eux seuls!
Toi, plutot,
Remplis-toi la panse;
Demeure en gaiete,
Jour et nuit;
Fais quotidiennement
La Fete;
Danse et amuse-toi,
Jour et nuit;
D'habits bien propres;
Regarde tendrement,
Ton petit qui te tient la main
Et fais le bonheur de ta fmme,
Serree contre toi:
Car telle est
L'unique perspective des

Jean Bottero

David Yonan's Konzert:

Sonntag den 20. Juli 1997 um 11:00
David Yonan spielt Geige
Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
im Musikinstrumenten Museum Berlin, Curt-Sachs Saal (dierekt neben der

      C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S

May 4                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Westchester, New York
                        Call Hugo Vandenwall Bake (914) 472-0874

May 5                   "Near Eastern Archeology"
                        Speaker:  Dr. Thomas E. Levy
                        University of California, San Diego

                        Location:  Tufts University, Boston
                        Call Jodi Magness (617) 628-5000 x2680

May 23-26               Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California

May 25                  A C N C '97
                        The Third Assyrian Community Networking Conference
                        The Assyrian State Convention of California
                        Turlock, California
                    Organized by The Assyrian Community Networking Society

Jul 20                  A Concert by the Assyrian Violinist, David Yonan
                        Mathaeikirchstrasse 1
                        Musikinstrumenten Museum, Curt-Sachs Saal
                        11:00 am

Aug 26-Sept 2           Assyrian American National Convention
                        Hyatt Regency Dearborn
                        Fairlane Town Center
                        Detroit, Michigan
                        All Single,double,triple,quad rooms: $95 per day
                        Reservations: (313) 982-6880
                        Reservations must be made by August 7.
                               E N T R A C T E

May 3                   Kalusulagha Picnic
                        Assyrian Americana Association of San Jose
                        at Saratoga Springs Picnic Grounds
                        9 am - 6 pm
                        Kabob, Hot Dogs, Ice Cream and Sodas
                        DJ Music
                        Adults:         $5.00
                        12 & Under:     $2.00
                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
CHICAGO         Assyrian Athletic Club Soccer Development Program
                        Ages 7-14
                        7:45-9:45 pm
                        Warren Park Gymnasium
                        Western Avenue & Devon Street

HARVARD UNIVERSITY      1997-98 Syriac Classes Taught by Dr. J.F. Coakley

                        Elementary Syriac
                        Instructor:  J. F. Coakley
                        Basic Syriac grammar and syntax
                        with selected readings from the Syriac Bible and
                        other early texts.

                        Readings in Syriac I
                        Historical and theological texts, and early poetry

                        Readings in Syriac II
                        Special attention to exegetical texts and to reading manuscripts.

MODESTO         Assyrian Educational & Cultural Club at
                        Modesto Junior College
                        1:00 pm
                        Founders Hall 108
                        Modesto, U.S.A.

NORTH HOLLYWOOD     Assyrian Boy Scouts
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        9:30am  to 12:30pm
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

                        Assyrian Student Union
                        California State University, Northridge
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

SAN JOSE                Nisibin School
                        Assyrian Language Classes
                        Ages 5-14
                        10:00-1:00 pm
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        20000 Almaden Road

                        Maestro Nebu Issabey's Nineveh Choir Practice
                        AAA of San Jose BETA
                        8:00 pm

TORONTO         Nisibis School
                        The Church of the East
                        Toronto, Canada

      A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

Interesting Reading on the Net:

        Linda Awdishu's The Sacred Tree

        Francis Sarguis' Benjamin the Munificent:

                     P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E

                English         Modern Assyrian

                Ship                    ga/mee , il/pa  [F]
                Boat                    il/po/nee/ta (tha)      [F]
F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (733) Tiglath-Pileser III captures Samaria and Damascus.  Pekah of
Israel flees from Samaria and 591 other towns and villages are levelled to
the ground.  An Arabian prince, Idibi-ilu, was then made the Assyrian
representative, responsible for the security of the Assyrian-Egyptian border.

<< The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol III >>

A.D. (1104) The Moslem army defeats the Crusaders in Harran and secures the
Assyrian cities of Mosul, Mardin, and Edessa in the early stages of the

<< The Age of the Crusades, Holt>>

                    L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S

                         OF ANCIENT ASSYRIAN LAW

"If a man has either poured oil on a girl's head or brought bridal gifts
and the son for whom they intended her as a wife wither dies or runs away,
he shall give her to any one of his sons he pleases, from his eldest to his
youngest, who must be 10 years old.  If the father dies, and the son for
whom they intended her as wife is dead, a grandson of the deceased who is
ten years old,shall marry her: if after waiting ten years the sons of the
son are minors, the father of the girl shall give his girl in marriage if
he pleases, or , if he pleases, mutual recompense shall be made.  If there
be no son of the deceased the girl's father shall return all that they have
received, precious stones and everything save food, up to the total sum,
but he shall not return food."

<< Assyrian Law Code, Jastrow >>
           T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y


May 1, 1847:  The Assyrian Hall of the Louvre Museum in Paris opens to
public.  On exhibition are the artifacts excavated in Nineveh.

                         B     R    A     V     O


Dr. Ashur Moradkhan of San Jose, California continues his instruction of
the Assyrian language classes in the Assyrian American Association of
Southern California's cultural center.  Dr. Moradkhan travels weekly to
southern California and gives instruction to over 80 enthusiastic students
of all ages.

                         the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

             W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:

                        Bell Atlantic
                        Harvard University
                        Chicago, Illinois
                        Los Angeles, California
                        Highland, California
                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals & organizations whose
contributions appear in this issue:
                        Albert Gabrial  Turlock, California
                        Christoph Aktas Sunnyvale, California

and the following individual(s) for introducing ZENDA to our new readers:
                        Rita Pirayou            San Jose, California
                        Arbel Soleymani San Jose, California
                        Albert Gabrial  Turlock, California

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