Z E N D A  M A G A Z I N E
[renamed Zinda Magazine in 1999]

Kanoon II  7, 6746                   Volume II                       Issue 45 & 46            January 7, 1997

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       A Weekly Online Publication of the ZENDA Assyrian Newsagency

                      T H I S   W E E K   I N   Z E N D A
The Lighthouse............................. Bridging the Gap
Good Morning Bet-Nahrain............ Turkish Troops Enter Iraq
                                                     Saddam & Barzani's Secret Pact
Surfs Up............................ "Is the name NAHRAIN an Assyrian name?"
Surfers Corner...................... Who is Leon Barkho?
News Digest......................... 600,000 Iraqi Refugees in Iran
                                            Maronite Journalist Arrested in Beirut
                                            French Archeologists Discovery in Syria
Calendar of Events.................. Art & Empire: The British Museum Coll.
Entracte............................ No New Entries
Intelligentsia...................... Classes, Lectures & Meetings
Assyrian Surfing Posts.............. Archeology Magazines Assyrian Artifacts
Pump up the Volume.................. A few Akkadian words we use today
Back to the Future.................. BC:  100 Years of Dark Ages
                                            AD:  St. Ephraim of Nisibin
Literatus........................... King Abgar's Letter to Jesus
This Week in History................ Mar Yokhana arrives in America
Bravo............................... Do We Hear 750?
The Directory....................... News Sources
Bshena.............................. Intel, Siemens, & San Jose
Salute.............................. Firas, Christoph, and Samiramis

                  THE   L   I   G   H   T   H   O   U   S   E

                               BRIDGING THE GAP

The Assyrians of today are descendants of the ancient Assyrian people who
built the mighty empires of Assyria and Babylon.  They rose to power and
prosperity in Mesopotamia, the main land of which consists of modern day
Iraq.  Assyrians played a major role in the advancement of civilisation.
After the fall of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires in the sixth and
seventh centuries B.C. respectively, Assyrians were reduced to a small
nation scattered in the Middle Eastern region.

Assyrians are Christian and their church dates back to the time of Christ.
In the first century they were among the first people to embrace
Christianity.  Over the following centuries because of their religion and
nationality, Assyrians suffered enormously, and came close to losing their
identity as a nation.  It was not until the middle of the 19th century when
Assyrians came in direct contact with the western world and their existence
attracted the attention of the outside world.

Following World War I, wherein the Assyrians fought alongside the British
as their "smallest ally", more that half of the estimated 3.5 million
Assyrians were displaced and reside outside the Middle East.  The ongoing
struggle of the Assyrian nation has always been to preserve its national
identity and to live in peace and harmony within their chosen country of

Bridging the Gap is an opportunity for a group of artists widely
representative of the Australian Assyrian Community to make the rest of the
communities aware of the Assyrian culture, by exhibiting their work and
expressing the richness of a culture that is alive and flourishing worldwide.

Prior to the realisation of Bridging the Gap I had a dream.  I remember
standing in a great hall with a group of Assyrian artists. Together we
formed a large circle.  Inside this vast circle the ground was covered with
red earth.  We were awaiting the arrival of the ancient Assyrian artifacts.
 Fro a corner of the hall a procession entered our circle.   As the
treasures were carried in, the space began to glow in a golden light...

The affinity most Assyrians have with their ancestral land is both physical
and spiritual.  This link is well reflected in the work seen here.  The
artists featured in this exhibition carry a rich cultural heritage in their
hearts.  Some were born in their ancestral land, modern day Iraq, and
others far from it.  The diverse styles and techniques shown here are
indicative of fluidity between traditional and contemporary art suggestive
of their environmental differences.

Adaptation to change is familiar to contemporary Assyrian artists.  Almost
all these artists have migrated more that once in their lifetime, embracing
multiculturalism as a way of life.  Coming to Australia with dreams and
visions for new expressions, these artists are able to experience the
richness of many cultures while making their contributions.

Samiramis Ziyeh
Sydney, Australia

[Semiramis is the Arts Director for the Fairfield Community Art Network and
directed Border Crossings, a multimedia installation/performance with young
Assyrian and Kurdish refugees from Iraq which was presented at the Belvoir
Street Theatre during Sydney Carnivale '96. She has spent the main part of
her life in New York, holding solo exhibitions and participating in
numerous group shows. Her work has won various awards and her designs are
displayed in the American Crafts Museum and the Museum of Modern Art in New
York.  Samiramis' work is a manifestation of the terrain that lies between
cultures, infused with insight and longing.    This week's feature article
appears in a brochure prepared for Bridging The Gap, a contemporary
Assyrian art exhibition in Melbourne, Australia.  This exhibition is held
at the National Gallery of Victoria where currently Art & Empire: Treasures
>From Assyria in the British Museum is on display until March 10, 1997.
ZENDA invites all its readers from Australia and New Zealand and those
traveling to Sydney and Melbourne to take advantage of this
once-in-a-lifetime event and view this magnificent collection of modern
Assyrian paintings by Hannibal Alkhas (Iran), Nahren Al-Jeloo (Kuwait),
Natasha Brakhya (Lebanon), Lewis Batros (Iraq), Edward Hydo (Iraq), John
Homeh (Syria), Edward Ivano (Syria), Maureen Miraziz (Kuwait), Nabil Tomi
(Sweden), Shmoiel Yawanis (Iraq), Oras Yacoub (Iraq), Rita Youil
(Australia), and Uonia Marous Zaya (Iraq).  Australia is presently
embroiled in a race debate after independent
politician Pauline Hanson charged in her maiden parliamentary speech that
Asians were swamping Australia. Nearly 100,000 foreigners annually migrate
to Australia. ]
     G  O  O  D    M  O  R  N  I  N  G    B  E  T - N  A  H  R  A  I  N


(ZNRU: Ankara) Last week, Turkish F-4 fighter-bombers which took off from
Diyarbakir bombed and destroyed three Kurdistan Workers Party or PKK camps
in the Sinath region of northern Iraq.  75 Kurds and two Turkish soldiers
had been killed in the operation since it began last Monday night. A
Turkish official news agency said Cobra helicopters launched bomb attacks on
other PKK fighters trying to escape across the border into Iraq.  Al-Thawra
newspaper, organ of the ruling Baath party in Iraq, An official Iraqi
newspaper,condemned Turkey on Thursday for sending troops into northern
Iraq.  Al-Thawra said the Turkish incursion "exposes U.S. lies that the
so-called 'aerial surveillance force' aims at safeguarding the Kurds." Last
week Turkey allowed the United States and Britain to continue using its
airbases to mount patrols over northern Iraq.  France withdrew from the
operation, earning Iraq's praise.


(ZNUP: Amman)  Diplomatic sources say a Kurdish faction in northern
Bet-Nahrain has been holding secret talks with Saddam's government and has
drawn up an "autonomy" agreement giving the group expanded self-rule in
northern Iraq.  An Asian diplomat says only "a few minor points remain to
be sorted out" between the government and a delegation of Masoud Barzani's Kurdish
Democratic Party, or KDP. He says the agreement empowers KDP leader Massoud
Barzani to run the Kurdish territories and collect taxes.  The source says
Barzani was offered the post of vice-president in the central government,
but he turned it down. The London office of the KDP denied the alleged
talks were held or that Barzani had visited Baghdad.

                      S   U   R   F   S     U   P   !
"I am very glad to let you know there is another Assyrian sister on the net
in Vienna, please be so kind and send her your wonderful assyrian
electronic newsletter...Wish you a merry christmas and a successful New

Bernadette Miraziz
Vienna, Austria


"Correct me if I'm wrong. Is the name NAHRAIN an Assyrian name? because we
all know the meaning of this name is Two rivers, but in Assyrian grammar,
in order to say two of anything, we have to add the number two ( treh
nahre), we have singular and plural, we do not have anything in between,
but in Arabic language for one river they say (NAHR) and for two rivers is
(NAHRAIN) which we don't have this in our Assyrian grammar, and in Arabic
is called (MOTHANAH), and for more than two rivers is the plural (ANHOR).
So dose this conclude that the name NAHRAIN is Arabic? I myself like the
name, but if this is an Arabic name ( no offense to all the assyrian women
that carries this name). Shouldn't we stop using it?"

Sargon Kanja

[An Aramaic noun may be found in 3 states:  one full and two contracted
forms. The full form with the letter "allap" at the end is the definite
form.  The two contracted forms denote one noun's relation to another
(mlootota).  The Assyrian word "nahra" for "river" is a regular noun which
in its plural form becomes "nah/ra/wa/te."  This plural noun forms its
contracted state by changing "awate" to "ain" as in "Nahrain".  Of course,
the word "nahrain" is now treated as a full plural form of the noun and
does not signify any contraction.  The correct form of this noun in modern
Assyrian would probably be "Bet-Nahrawate".  For more information see
Syro-Chaldaic Grammar by Fr. Gabrial of St. Joseph, 1984.]


"THE HOPE newspaper, first issue - January 1997, came out from the press on
December 30, 1996.  'THE HOPE' is an Assyrian monthly newspaper, eight
pages, tabloid size, and it is distributed, free-of-charge, in three
cities:  Chicago, Detroit & Toronto.  The newspaper hit the streets of many
Canadian cities, where most of Assyrians are currently resided:  Windsor,
London-Ontario, Hamilton and Toronto, as our community were preparing to
welcome the New Year 1997.  It is expected, the newspaper, to be in Detroit
and Chicago within 24 hour.

"The Hope" newspaper is a nationalist educational newspaper of Bet-Nahrain
Democratic Party to help our Assyrian community enrich cultural activities,
strengthen the continuation of preserving our Assyrian language, preserving
our heritage, opening a channel of communication among Assyrians by
bringing far distances to be closer, so to the dilemma of isolation can be
minimized if not abolished, and helping in developing our Assyrian
institutions and unity. For further information and request to receive a
copy, please E-Mail me at ashour@ican.net."

Simon Malek
Hamilton, Ontario
Tel.(905) 318-8283
Fax (905) 573-1478
Fax (905) 279-7347

"I have a couple of questions to ask Zenda's readers, but first I would like
to thank  Zenda for the excellent work it is doing for all of us.  The two
questions that I have are as follows:

1.  Is there an Assyrian to English Dictionary written?
2.  I visited Isreal a month or so ago and was surprised to find that much
of their basic vocabulary is the same as ours, they pronounce the words the
same and the meaning is identical.  Even some of their Months are pronounced
exactly as ours.  Does anyone know when and how this happened?"

Thomas Daniel
Turlock, California.

[Reverend Shmuil David's English-Chaldean Dictionary, written in 1924, was
recently reprinted in Chicago. Both modern Assyrian and Hebrew belong to a
group of languages referred to as Northwest Semitic.  While living in
captivity in Babylon, Hebrew speakers of the pre-Christian era adopted many
proper nouns such as the months of the year from old Assyrian (Akkadian)].


[Recently a ZENDA reader, planning a short trip to South America, requested
the whereabouts of any Assyrian living in Argentina.  Two weeks later an
Assyrian ZENDA reader from Uruguay contacted our office and provided us
with the name and telephone number of an Assyrian residing in Buenos Aires.
 We are eager to learn about our reader's findings in Argentina which will
surely appear in the future issues.]

                  S  U  R  F  E  R  S      C  O  R  N  E  R

                                 Who is Leon Barkho?

A ZENDA reader is inquiring about Leon Barkho, a Reuters reporter, whose
articles on Iraq, the Kurds, and the current events in the Middle East
appear regularly in the U.S. weekly publications.  If you have more
information please contact ZENDA at zenda@ix.netcom.com  .
                  N   E   W   S       D   I   G   E   S   T


(ZNRU: Tehran) Iran, which suffers from an official unemployment rate of
nearly 11 percent, is home to two million refugees- 1.4 million from
Afghanistan and 600,000 from Iraq. This makes Iran, with a population of 58
million, the world's most important host country, according to the United
Nations refugee agency. A deadline for Iranian employers to fire an
estimated one million foreign workers expired on Saturday as part of Iran's
campaign to fight high unemployment.  Mostafa Musavi, a labour ministry
official, told local press he expected about 100,000 jobs to open up within
three months after the deadline. He said 1,000 illegal workers had been
replaced by Iranians over the last month. Iraqi refugees living in Iran's
western provinces are mainly Assyrian and Kurd who fled northern
Bet-Nahrain during and after the Gulf War in 1991.


(ZNRU: Beirut) Nasri Lahoud, a Lebanese military prosecuter has charged
Pierre Atallah, a Maronite Christian journalist, with having contacts with
Israel and distributing leaflets that incite military disobedience. Atallah
of Beirut's leading conservative An-Nahar newspaper and 47 others were
detained in a recent widespread campaign which took place in the last two
weeks. The detention campaign was sparked by an incident in which a van
carrying Syrian workers was machine gunned in a predominantly Christian
area, killing the driver and injuring some passengers. Syria has 35,000
troops in Lebanon and is the country's main power broker. If convicted with
these charges, Atallah faces up to three years in prison.  On Friday, Riad
Taliya, a Lebanese military judge ordered Atallah's release but Mr. Lahoud
immediately appealed against the decision. The Paris-based press freedom
watchdog group Reporters sans Frontieres (Reporters Without Borders) has
appealed to Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri and French President
Jacques Chirac for Atallah's release.  Atallah was seized during the night
by a Lebanese Army officer and an army intelligence agent who refused to
show an arrest warrant but put guns to his head and took him to the
defense ministry outside Beirut.

                      "MISSING LINK" IS WRITTEN IN STONE
                            (New Scientist 14 Dec 96, p. 9)

(ZNDA: France)  Carvings on a series of stones unearthed in Syria may
represent an important "missing link" in the evolution of written
communication, claim French archaeologists.  The 10,000-year-old carvings
are twice the age of Sumerian cuneiform, the world's oldest writing. They
are pictograms, abstract symbols which convey meaning but are not as
complex as a true written system. Danielle Stordeur of the Institute of
Oriental Prehistory near Nimes says that the Syrian pictograms represent an
intermediate form of communication lying between palaeolithic cave art,
which flourished between 30,000 and 12,000 years ago, and later forms of
The stones were uncovered at Jerf el-Ahmar, an excavation on the left bank
of the Euphrates River. Four of them appear to be some sort of tool with a
large groove on one side and combinations of lines, arrows and animal
outlines carved on the other side.  Two smaller flat oval-shaped rocks are
engraved on both sides. One depicts a large insect connected to an owl-like
figure with circles as eyes; its other side is covered with 34 crescent
shapes bearing dots.  The second flat stone bears arrows, zigzags, and
other shapes on one side and a grid and a snake on the other. "Associations
of abstract signs are thought to have a meaning," Stordeur says. "When you
that meaning on a stone you have a message."  Just what these ancient
messages said will probably remain a mystery, however. Decoding the
messages would require further finds. But the researchers have only one
more digging season before the site, which is located 2 kilometres north of
the Tichrine dam, now under construction, is flooded.


                                     NEWS BITS...


Jordan will buy 4.5 million tonnes of crude oil and by-products from Iraq
for 1997, a senior Jordanian official said.

Each Iraqi is currently entitled to only 2.75 lbs. of rice, 15.4 lbs. of
flour, 1.1 lbs. of sugar, 1.6 lbs. of cooking oil and 100 grams of tea
every month.

An Iraqi newspaper said that more than 17,000 Iraqi prisoners of war
captured during the 1980-88 Iran-Iraq war were still languishing in Iranian
jails and Tehran refused for political reasons to free them.

Iranian police have arrested a man on charges of being an Iraqi agent and
carrying out a 1994 bombing in Tehran in which two people died, a newspaper


A joint Syrian-German archaeological team has unearthed the remains of a
temple they say dates back to the third millennium B.C. at an
archaeological site in Syria's northwest town of Aleppo.

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's eldest son is unlikely to recover full use
of his left leg after being wounded in an assassination attempt last month.

         C   A   L   E   N   D   A   R     OF     E   V   E   N   T   S
Thru Jan 19             Bridging the Gap
                        Contemporary and Traditional Assyrian Art
                        Australian Assyrian Communities
                        National Gallery of Victoria
                        Melbourne, Australia
                        Curator:  Semiramis Ziyeh

Thru Mar 10             Art & Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British
                        National Gallery of Victoria
                        Melbourne, Australia
                        Admission: $10.00

Thru Apr 6      The Ain Ghazal Exhibit
                        Smithsonian Institute
                        Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
                Washington D.C.
                        AAA of Southern CA      (818) 506-7577

Jan 10                  General Elections of the
                        Assyrian American Association of San Jose
                        BETA:  20000 Almaden Road, San Jose, California
                        8:00 pm

Jan 15                  Ashur & Marduk:  The State Gods of Assyria & Babylonia
                        Lecturer:  G. Frame
                        Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations
                        University of Toronto
                        St. George campus
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

Mar 12                  Guardians of the Gate:  The Assyrian Winged Colossi
                        Lecturer:  A. Harrak
                        Near and Middle Eastern Civilization
                        University of Toronto
                        St. George campus
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

April 9                 Recent Excavations at Gordion, Turkey:
                        An Achaemenid Persian Imperial Town in Central Anatolia
                        Lecturer:  T.C. Young, Jr.
                        Royal Ontario Museum
                        Toronto, Canada
                        8:00 p.m

                         I N T E L L I G E N T S I A
Thursdays               Nineveh Choir under the direction of Maestro Nebu Issabey
                        BETA:  20000 Almaden Road
                        San Jose, California
                        8:00 pm

Fridays                 Assyrian Educational & Cultural Club at
                        Modesto Junior College
                        1:00 pm
                        Founders Hall 108
                        Modesto, U.S.A.

Saturdays               Nisibis School
                        The Church of the East
                        Toronto, Canada

                        Nisibin School
                        10:00-12:00 pm
                        BETA:  Assyrian American Association of San Jose
                        San Jose, California

SUNDAYS                 Assyrian Boy Scouts
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        9:30am  to 12:30pm
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

                        Assyrian Student Union
                        California State University, Northridge
                        Assyrian American Association of Southern California
                        Assyrian Club
                        5901 Cahuenga Blvd
                        North Hollywood, California
                        Contact Sargon Gewargis @ fishtale@juno.com
                        (818) 891-3705 after 7:30 pm

       A  S  S  Y  R  I  A  N     S  U  R  F  I  N  G     P  O  S  T  S

Assyrian Artifacts on the Internet

Archaeology Magazine's article "Stolen Stones:  The Modern Sack Of Nineveh"
is now available on-line at the Archaeology Magazine web site:


                     P  U  M  P    UP THE   V O L U M E
This week we present a few Old Assyrian or Akkadian words (ca 3000 BC)
which are still in use by modern speakers of Assyrian:

                English Akkadian        Modern Assyrian

                house           bitu            beta
                bow             qastu           qeshta
                weep            ibki            bikhya, bkheta

Note:  "ta" at the end of Assyrian may also be pronounced as "tha" as
commonly spoken in northern & central Bet-Nahrain.

F = Feminine     M = Masculine      P = Plural
                B  A  C  K     TO THE      F  U  T  U  R  E
B.C. (1595)  The Babylonian Dynasty established by Hammurabi comes to an
end when Murshili, a Hittite conquerer, sacks Babylon.  The entire
Bet-Nahrain (Mesopotamia) plunges into a Dark Age of a hundred years.
<<  The Ancient Near East, Hallo>>

A.D. (306) St. Ephraim, the greatest literary genius among the Syriac
writers, is born in Nisibin.

<< Syro-Chaldaic Grammar, Fr. Gabrial of St. Joseph >>

                    L    I    T    E    R    A    T    U    S


And the letter was read before him (Jesus), in which the following was
written: "Abgar the Black to Jesus, the good physician, who has appeared a
the lace of Jerusalem.  Lord, hail!  I have heard of you and of your
healing, that you do not heal by medicines and by drugs, but by your word
you make blind men see (lit. open) and you make lame men walk and you make
lepers clean.  And you make def men hear and you cast out spirits and
night-wandering demons (lit. roof-sons),and you heal the miserable by your
word, and also raise dead men.  When I heard these great wonders that you
do, I came to the conclusion (lit. put in my mind) that either you are God
who came down from heaven and did these, or you are God's son, that you do
all these.  Therefore I write and ask you (lit. wrote, asked) that you come
to me, that I may prostate myself before you, and you heal a certain pain
that I have, since I believe in you.  Also, I have further heard this, that
the Jews are murmuring against you and persecuting you, and even wish to
crucify you and intend to do away with you.  I have but one small province,
but it is beautiful and for two sufficient to inhabit it in peace."

When Jesus received the letter in the house of the high priest of the Jews,
he said to the courier Hannan: "Go and say to your lord, who sent you to
me: 'Blessed are you, that when you have not seen me you believe in me!
For it is written concerning me that those who see me will not believe in
me.  And that you have written to me that I should come to you- that for
which I have been sent here is now fulfilled, and I am about to ascend to
my Father who sent me; and when I have ascended to him, I will send you one
of my disciples, who will heal and cure whatever pain you have, and all who
are with you he will lead to eternal life.  And your city will be blessed,
and no enemy in the future will ever take it over."

           T  H  I  S    W  E  E  K     I  N    H  I  S  T  O  R  Y

January 11, 1842:  Mar Yokhana, Bishop of Gavilanm, Iran arrives in America
as the first Assyrian to reach the United States from the Middle East.

                            B     R    A     V     O

                               DO WE HEAR 750?

ZENDA readers did it again!  On December 24 we reached our goal of
registering 500 Assyrian online readers, in addition to many other friends
of Assyrian culture, history, and politics.  As you may have already
suspected we like to aim high, very high indeed.  Therefore we have set a
new goal for 1997: to double our number of subscribers and reach 500 more
Assyrian individuals and communities around the world.  Once more, we are
indebted to our readers, without whose constant support and marvelous
networking abilities there could be no weekly newsletter reaching Assyrian
communities in 20 countries around the world.  Thank you again.

Staff of ZENDA
                         the   D I  R  E  C  T  O  R  Y
ZNAD (Assyrian Democratic Organization)
ZNAM (Archeology Magazine)
ZNAP (Associated Press International)
ZNBN (Bet-Nahrain Inc/ KBSV-TV "AssyriaVision")
ZNDA (Zenda: zenda@ix.netcom.com)
ZNMN (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNNQ (Nabu Quarterly)
ZNNV (Nineveh Magazine)
ZNRU (Reuters)
ZNSJ (San Jose Mercury News)
ZNTM (Time Magazine)
ZNUP (United Press International)
ZNUS (US News & World Report)

             W   E   L   C   O   M   E     T O     Z   E   N   D   A
Zenda welcomes our new on-line subscribers from:


                                San Jose, California

                     S     A     L     U     T     E
Zenda wishes to thank the following individuals & organizations whose
contributions appear in this issue:
                        Firas Jatou             Chicago, Illinois
                        Samiramis Ziyeh Sydney, Australia
                        Christoph Aktas Sunnyvale, California